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What makes us smart? Or not so smart?

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Presentation on theme: "What makes us smart? Or not so smart?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What makes us smart? Or not so smart?
Intelligence What makes us smart? Or not so smart? Intelligence (in all cultures) is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations.

2 Theories of Intelligence
No one real definition 4 main theoretical concepts of intelligence….

3 Charles Spearman and his G factor
Used factor analysis and discovered that what we see as many different skills is actually one General Intelligence. If you are good at one subject you are usually good at many others. Jack Bauer is good at torturing, bomb defusing, shooting, figuring out evil plots and saving the country (and he is good looking). Is there anything he cannot do?

4 Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences
Gardner believed that there exists at least 8 different types of intelligences. Linguistic Logical-mathematical Spatial Musical Body-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Naturalist

5 Robert Sternberg and his Triarchic Theory
Three types of intelligence to predict real world success Analytical Creative Practical

6 Goleman and his EQ Emotional Intelligence a combination of skills, such as empathy, self control, self awareness. Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Maybe EQ is a better predictor for future success than IQ.

7 Brain Size and Intelligence Is there a link?
Small +.15 correlation between head size and intelligence scores (relative to body size). Using an MRI we found +.44 correlation with brain size and IQ score.

8 Brain Function and Intelligence
Higher performing brains are less active than lower performing brains (use less glucose). Neurological speed is also a bit quicker.

9 How do we Assess Intelligence?
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon set out to figure out a concept called a mental age (what a person of a particular age should know). They discovered that by discovering someone’s mental age they can predict future performance. Hoped they could use test to help children, not label them.

10 Terman and his IQ Test Used Binet’s research to construct the modern day IQ test called the Stanford-Binet Test. A 8 year old has a mental age of 10, what is her IQ? A 12 year old has the mental age of 9, what is his IQ? A boy has the mental age of 10 and an IQ of 200, how old is he?

11 Problems with the IQ Formula
It does not really work well on adults, why? If a 60 year old man does as well as an average 35 year old then his IQ would be 50!!!!!! That makes no sense!!!!!

12 Wechsler Tests WAIS (adult) WISC (Children) Total Score Verbal Score
1. Information: of general knowledge. 2. Digit Span:. 3. Vocabulary: 4. Arithmetic: 5. Comprehension: 6. Similarities: Performance score 7 . Picture Completion: 8. Picture Arrangement:. 9. Block Design: 10. Digit Symbol: Involves copying a coding pattern. 11. Object Assembly

13 The Flynn Effect

14 How do we construct an Intelligence Test?
Standardized: the questions have been piloted on similar populations and the scores fall on a normal distribution. Reliable: consistent results Split-half Reliability: Reliability using different tests: Test-Retest Reliability: Validity: what the test is supposed to measure Content Validity: Predictive Validity.

15 Normal Distribution

16 Types of Tests Aptitude Achievement Measure ability or potential.
Tests that measure what you have learned.

17 Does Intelligence Change Over Time?
By age 3, a child’s IQ can predict adolescent IQ scores. Depends on the type of intelligence, crystallized or fluid.

18 Extremes of Intelligence
Akrit Jaswal Savant – retardation or mental ill individual that have spectator ability or brilliance.

19 “Is intelligence due to genetics or environment?”

20 Adoption Studies Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adopted parents.

21 Schooling Effects To increase readiness for schoolwork,
Schooling is an experience that pays dividends, which is reflected in intelligence scores. Increased schooling correlates with higher intelligence scores. To increase readiness for schoolwork, projects like Head Start facilitate leaning.

22 Similarities and Differences
Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores. High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income. 1. Girls are better spellers 2. Girls are verbally fluent and have large vocabularies 3. Girls are better at locating objects 4. Girls are more sensitive to touch, taste, and color 5. Boys outnumber girls in counts of underachievement 6. Boys outperform girls at math problem solving, but under perform at math computation 7. Women detect emotions more easily than men do

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