2The Classical Historical Model Barrington MooreThe Classical Historical ModelPopulation Explosion and Technological Revolution c. 1700Increase Commercial and Modern Industrial Activity c. 1760Urbanization c. 1775Emergence of a Middle Class c. 1789: With Accompanying Ideas of: Liberalism, Nationalism and DemocracyEmergence of a Working Class (Proletariat) c. 1825: With Accompanying Ideas of Socialism
3Crane Brinton Anatomy of Revolution Causes of Revolution Condition 1 – Economy: Societies become prosperous economically before revolution.Condition 2 – Social Class: People of all social classes feel restless and held down by restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the government. People are hopeful about the future, but they are forced to accept less than they believe they are due. There is a growing bitterness between social classes and the classes closest to one another are the most hostile.Condition 3 – Intellectuals: Scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates and transfer their allegiance to a revolutionary group.Condition 4 - The government does not respond to the needs of its society. The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly.Condition 5 – Ruling Class The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.
4Crane Brinton Anatomy of Revolution Stages of Revolution Moderates Come to PowerRadicalization of the Revolution – Radicals to PowerCrisis Period/Reign of TerrorThermidor – Moderates back in powerSubversion of Revolution to Right Wing Authoritarian Figure (Meisel Addendum)
5Chalmers Johnson Categories of Revolutionary Theories Revolutionary ChangeCategories of Revolutionary TheoriesActor-oriented TheoriesStructural TheoriesConjunction TheoriesProcess Theories
7Chalmers Johnson Revolutionary Change Types of Revolutions Jacquerie – spontaneous uprising of the MassesMillenarian – Elite leading the masses (Unusual of inspirational leader)Jacobin – Elite leading masses (ideological elite)Anarchist – Elites leading masses without direction, ideology or replacement of the social systemCoup d’etat – One Elite minority replacing anotherMilitarized mass insurrection - Elites arming the masses but don’t provide direction
8The Communist Manifesto Karl MarxThe Communist ManifestoHegelian Dialectic for the economic and social developmentPrimitive CommunismSlave SocietyFeudal SocietyCapitalismSocialismCommunism (“The state will wither away”)
9The Communist Manifesto Karl MarxThe Communist ManifestoAll conflict arises from the class-based struggle to own the means of production.The Bourgeosie would never give up their privileged place as owners of the means of production. Therefore, a revolution followed by a dictatorship of the proletariat will inevitably occur in the most industrialized societies.
10Revolutionary Movements James DeFronzoRevolutionary MovementsSufficient Conditions for RevolutionMass Frustration in SocietyDissident EliteUnifying MotivationSevere Political CrisisPermissive or Tolerant World Context
11Ted Gurr Why Men Rebel RD – Relative Deprivation Turmoil – Mass RD Conspiracy – Mass RD + Elite RDRevolutionary War
12Europe in Revolutions: 1492-1992 Charles TillyEurope in Revolutions:Revolutionary SituationsEnvironment/Structure –Weak states are more likely to enter these situationTwo or more groups compete for control of the stateState is unwilling or unable to suppress alternative coalitions2. Revolutionary OutcomesElites defectNeutralization of the armed forces
13States and Social Revolutions Theda SkocpolStates and Social RevolutionsSocial Revolutions have both national and international impact.Structural forces create revolutionary situations.Social revolutions (a change in both state institutions and social structures) are carried out by purposive action by class-based revolts from below.Two variables are sufficient to create a Revolutionary Situation (Part I):A Crisis of State which creates a challenge the state cannot meet leading to elites (and/or the army) becoming dividedPatterns of class dominance determine which group will rise up to exploit the revolutionary situation and lead it.
14States and Social Revolutions Theda SkocpolStates and Social RevolutionsRevolutionary Outcomes (Part II) are shaped by:The “obstacles and opportunities “ from Part IThe socioeconomic and international constraints affect how the revolutionary regime will establish itself.France – liberal capitalismRussia – socialist dictatorshipChina – mass mobilizing party-state
15Che Guevara & Gabriel Bonet Guerrilla Foco TheoryPartisan Warfare (war against your enemy)+Psychological Warfare (War against your friends) =Equals Revolutionary WarfareChe believes the corruption of capitalism causes the conditions (ie Multiple Dysfunction) for revolution exist everywhere. Therefore in a guerrilla foco, a revolution can be created anywhere.