Presentation on theme: " Industrialization and Global Integration c. 1750 - c. 1900 Industrialization and Global Capitalism Imperialism and Nation State Formation Nationalism,"— Presentation transcript:
Industrialization and Global Integration c c Industrialization and Global Capitalism Imperialism and Nation State Formation Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform Global Migration
FACT All three major European Revolutions (English, French, & Russian) occurred when literacy rates among the population reached about 50%
FEVER MODEL OF REVOLUTION Much like an illness, revolutions can also be studied in stages
This stage in an illness is when the cause of the sickness first comes into contact with the individual, infecting them, but not yet causing any symptoms to present themselves. What would this stage be like in a revolution? In a revolution, this stage would involve the political, social, intellectual, or economic causes. In some cases, these causes could fester for many years before showing themselves in the form of actual revolutionary action.
This stage in an illness is when sickness starts to affect the person in observable ways. Temperature may rise. A cough might present itself. The individual might become weak and queasy. What would this stage be like in a revolution? In a revolution, this stage would be the first to involve direct action resulting from the social, political, intellectual, or economic causes of the incubation stage. This stage might involve the publication of works calling for a change, street level riots by the common people, or more direct attempts at changing the society.
Crisis Stage In a revolution, this stage would be the make or break part of the struggle. It may involve where sides for and against the revolution compete. This conflict competition could take the form of debate or full-scale war. Successful revolutions survive this stage. Those that do not are usually considered failed rebellions. What would this stage be like in a revolution? This is the critical stage in an illness where two things can happen. The individual either breaks the fever after a heightened stage of illness or the individual gets progressively worse and does not recover.
This stage involves recovering from the illness. The individual might be weakened from the experience, but he or she will eventually emerge healthy and with new knowledge and experience that might prevent the illness from occurring again. What would this stage be like in a revolution? Convalescence In a revolution, this stage would involve recovering from the extreme disruptions of the crisis stage. In general, the political, social, intellectual, or economic causes of the revolution must be addressed in some way, though not necessarily to the satisfaction of all revolutionaries.
FRENCH REVOLUTION OLD REGIME Economically Weak Politically Weak Intellectual opposition Tension among the classes
FRENCH REVOLUTION FIRST STAGES of the REVOLUTION Symbolic Actions Planning Role of Force by the Rebellion
FRENCH REVOLUTION RULE OF THE MODERATES Dual Sovereignty Moderates take over mechanism of government
FRENCH REVOLUTION ACCESSION OF THE EXTREMISTS Coup d'état Organization/Administration
FRENCH REVOLUTION REIGN OF TERROR AND VIRTUE Forced conformity or punishment Spread the gospel of the revolution Causes of terror
FRENCH REVOLUTION THERMIDORE Recovery/Convalescence Amnesty or Repression Return of please, end of unrest, status quo
English Revolution - The Old Regime 1. Economically weak- Charles I needs tax money for war with Spain and France and for his planned invasion of Scotland; the tax system of a feudal government is inadequate for the times 2. Politically weak – Puritans gain control of the Parliament and will not vote in accordance with Charles I 3. Intellectuals desert – The Independence/Puritan churches become pressure groups and publish pamphlets and preach on matters of sociological and religious nature. 4. Class antagonism – Royalists vs. Parliamentarians;; upper- class gentry vs. middle-class merchants; Anglicans vs. Puritans and Independents
First Stages of the Revolution 1. Symbolic actions – Charles fails to arrest five members of the House of Commons; Parliament executes Stafford for treason; petition of Rights 2. Planning – Puritan preachers and pamphleteers continue to rail against Charles. 3. Role of Force –Parliamentarians defeat Cavaliers at Marston Moor in 1644; Cromwell’s New Model Army defeats Cavaliers at Naesby in 1645 and Scotch Presbyterians at Preston Pans in 1648.
Rule of the Moderates (center) 1. Dual sovereignty - there is a better organized and obeyed government. 2. Moderates take over mechanism of government - make a new constitution: fight a war.
Accession of the Extremists (Left) 1. Coup d’état - the illegal government seizes power. 2. Organization - a small number of devoted, disciplined radicals govern.
Reigns of terror and virtue 1. Forced conformity or punishment 2. Spread the gospel of revolution 3. Causes of terror: habitual violence, pressure of war, economics; class or ideological struggles
Thermidore (center) 1. First convalescence from the fever of revolution 2. Amnesty or repression 3.Return of pleasure, religion, status quo