Rumblings of Revolution 1825 – Decembrist uprising –Western oriented army officers –Put down by Nicholas I Results –Political repression –Censorship –Russia avoids the Revolution fever Crimean War – Russia loses signaling to Alexander II that society must change –Russia attacks Ottomans France and Britain join Ottomans –Displays Western industrial power A reforming Russia is a struggling Russia –As a result of serfs
Russian Reform Era Education increases rapidly –State sponsored Military modernizes –Adopts practices of other countries Women get an education (some) Trans-Siberian Railroad –Stimulates Russia coal and iron industries 1900 –4 th in world production of steel –2 nd in world in refinement of petroleum The Russian economy was now more competitive in the world market
Assassination!! As a result of the changes and turmoil, Alexander II is assassinated(bomb) in 1881. Industrialism continues but so does trouble
Factors of the 1905 Revolution Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Embraces Marxist philosophy Supported by Bolsheviks Working Class in Russia unhappy Defeat in the Russo-Japanese war –THE LAST STRAW!
Revolution of 1905 People protesting about unfair Russian Policies Protesting Russo-Japanese War Put down by the Czar (Nicholas II) 3,228 disturbances required military intervention Land-holders suffered around 29 million rubles worth of damage.
Outcome of the 1905 Revolution Granted basic civil rights Allowed the formation of political parties Move toward universal suffrage Established the Duma as the central legislative body. The Czar did not want to sign but realized he had no choice –Claimed he felt 'sick with shame at this betrayal of the dynasty Some people were happy while others were disgusted. Riots rose and were broken up quickly
Russian Revolutions The February Revolution of 1917 Displaced Czar Nicholas II of Russia –He was the final czar Attempt to establish a liberal government –The Provisional Government (Feb – October) The October Revolution Bolshevik party(Lenin led) –Coup to overthrow the Provisional Government Revolution in the name of the Soviets –Soviets – workers council Most occurs in Moscow but also in rural areas –Peasants seized and redistributed land.
Russian Revolution Lenin (1917 – 1924) NEP – permits some economic freedoms –Improved food and peasant life USSR Lenins death = Power struggle
Tokugawa Japan independent country closed country
Gunboat Diplomacy - 1853 Matthew Perry open trade ports strategic location no mistreatment of sailors
1854 Treaty of Kanagawa turning point in Japanese history established treaty ports established consulates by 1860, rights extended to Britain, Russia, France and the Netherlands
Civil War Shoguns, SamuraiShoguns, Samurai - keep old ways RoyalistsRoyalists - return emperor to power
Meiji Restoration Enlightened RuleEnlightened Rule 1868 - 19121868 - 1912 Shogunate out, emperor backShogunate out, emperor back social, political, economic revolutionsocial, political, economic revolution Transforms Japan into a world powerTransforms Japan into a world power "National Wealth and Military Strength""National Wealth and Military Strength" Military reformed (samurai now taxed)Military reformed (samurai now taxed) –Some eliminated and others enjoyed a new role in life They were, after all, better educated and qualifiedThey were, after all, better educated and qualified
Economic/Industrial Changes... catch up with the westcatch up with the west missions to find the bestmissions to find the best by 1900 - foundations in place for light industry, heavy industry and transportationby 1900 - foundations in place for light industry, heavy industry and transportation
Social changes.... no social classes compulsory education
Japan became an imperialist power in the 1890s as industrialization created new needs: new food sources new markets new resources/raw materials
Sino-Japanese War 1894 - 1895 Korea claimed by China Japan wanted privileges escalation to war Japan defeated China 2 nd SJ War 1937 - 45
Treaty of Shimonoseki China recognized Korean independence Territories to Japan –Formosa(Taiwan), Pescadores, Liaotung Peninsula Indemnity - $150 million to Japan Chinese Army lacked unity and modernity
Conflicts with the West Russia wanted Liaotung Peninsula for Trans-Siberian Railroad Joint request for Japanese withdrawal Result - Japan angry/determined to regain influence
Russo-Japanese War –1904 - 5 over rights to Liaotung Peninsula Russia backed by France, Germany Japanese victory 1st time that an Asian nation defeated a European power Established Japan as a power to be dealt with in the Far East