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Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China Chapter 26.

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Presentation on theme: "Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China Chapter 26."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China Chapter 26

2 Ottoman to Turk: How Nationalism Destroys Empires After the last attempt to take Vienna and the lands of the Habsburgs, the Ottoman Empire began a slow decline and retreat in eastern Europe. After the last attempt to take Vienna and the lands of the Habsburgs, the Ottoman Empire began a slow decline and retreat in eastern Europe. Wars with Russia, and independence movements in Greece and Serbia led to the Ottoman Empire being called the sick man of Europe. Wars with Russia, and independence movements in Greece and Serbia led to the Ottoman Empire being called the sick man of Europe.

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4 Can the Ottomans reform themselves? Over the centuries, the imperial system led to corruption, lack of modernization, and simmering nationalism. Over the centuries, the imperial system led to corruption, lack of modernization, and simmering nationalism. Selim III r attempted to reform the imperial bureaucracy and military – but factionalism kept the reforms from happening. Selim III r attempted to reform the imperial bureaucracy and military – but factionalism kept the reforms from happening. The Janissaries revolted in 1807 and he was killed. The Janissaries revolted in 1807 and he was killed.

5 Mahmud II – 1826 – Mahmed II had secretly used European advisors to created a small but elite force. The Janissaries revolted in 1826 – only to find themselves victims of the elite guard of the sultan. The Janissaries, their families, and their religious advisors were slaughtered. Mahmud II – 1826 – Mahmed II had secretly used European advisors to created a small but elite force. The Janissaries revolted in 1826 – only to find themselves victims of the elite guard of the sultan. The Janissaries, their families, and their religious advisors were slaughtered.

6 Tanzimat Freed from the Janissaries, Mahmud instituted reforms – especially after cowing the AYAN – provincial nobles. Freed from the Janissaries, Mahmud instituted reforms – especially after cowing the AYAN – provincial nobles. Mahmud rejected the call of the Ulama to strengthen the empire through a return to the past. Mahmud called for modernization and westernization. Mahmud rejected the call of the Ulama to strengthen the empire through a return to the past. Mahmud called for modernization and westernization. A period if reforms known as the TANZIMAT were instituted from A period if reforms known as the TANZIMAT were instituted from

7 Tanzimat University training westernized and expanded University training westernized and expanded European sciences and mathematics taught European sciences and mathematics taught Postal and telegraph systems created Postal and telegraph systems created Railways Railways Newspapers Newspapers Legal reforms Legal reforms 1876 constitution – European based 1876 constitution – European based ***minority religious groups prospered*** ***minority religious groups prospered*** ***artisans were hurt by the influx of European goods*** ***artisans were hurt by the influx of European goods*** ***reform for women had been debated – seclusion, veiling, polygamy – but nothing was acted upon until after the sultans*** ***reform for women had been debated – seclusion, veiling, polygamy – but nothing was acted upon until after the sultans***

8 Can One Reform and Modernized and Maintain a Sultan? New modern Ottoman elites clashed with the Ulama and ayan. New modern Ottoman elites clashed with the Ulama and ayan. Old vs. new Old vs. new ABDUL HAMID – sultan – attempted to re-impose autocratic rule in the face of the growing demand among the elites for continued reform. ABDUL HAMID – sultan – attempted to re-impose autocratic rule in the face of the growing demand among the elites for continued reform. He nullified the constitution and revoked civil liberties. He nullified the constitution and revoked civil liberties. BUT – Abdul Hamid continued the modernization of the military and a railway Berlin to Baghdad. BUT – Abdul Hamid continued the modernization of the military and a railway Berlin to Baghdad.

9 Young Turks 1908 – Abdul Hamid removed from power in a coup detat 1908 – Abdul Hamid removed from power in a coup detat OTTOMAN SOCIETY FOR UNION AND PROGRESS – established in Paris in 1889 – Turkish intellectuals who pledged loyalty to the empire – but wanted even greater reform. OTTOMAN SOCIETY FOR UNION AND PROGRESS – established in Paris in 1889 – Turkish intellectuals who pledged loyalty to the empire – but wanted even greater reform – the Young Turks had the sympathy of the military 1908 – the Young Turks had the sympathy of the military A new sultan was installed as a symbol of unity – MEHMED V – but the military and Young Turks vied for power. Divisions among the reformers and military kept true reform from happening – as the empire broke apart. A new sultan was installed as a symbol of unity – MEHMED V – but the military and Young Turks vied for power. Divisions among the reformers and military kept true reform from happening – as the empire broke apart.

10 The Ottoman alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in WWI finished the empire and sultanate

11 EGYPT While the Arab peoples of the Ottoman Empire resented the rule of the Turks, they also feared the growing power of the Europeans – especially as the Europeans took control of Muslim states in India, Indonesia, Algeria, etc. While the Arab peoples of the Ottoman Empire resented the rule of the Turks, they also feared the growing power of the Europeans – especially as the Europeans took control of Muslim states in India, Indonesia, Algeria, etc. Napoleons invasion of Egypt was met by the armies of the MAMLUK. Mamluk meant slave and they were Egyptian vassals of the Ottoman Empire. Napoleons invasion of Egypt was met by the armies of the MAMLUK. Mamluk meant slave and they were Egyptian vassals of the Ottoman Empire. The Malmuk leader MURAD dismissed Napoleon and claimed superiority over the Europeans. The Malmuk leader MURAD dismissed Napoleon and claimed superiority over the Europeans. The slaughter of the Mamluk forces shocked the Muslim world and illustrated the technological backwardness of the Muslim armies. The slaughter of the Mamluk forces shocked the Muslim world and illustrated the technological backwardness of the Muslim armies.

12 Battle of the Pyramids

13 Muhammad Ali After the retreat of the French, MUHAMMAD ALI established himself as leader of Egypt. After the retreat of the French, MUHAMMAD ALI established himself as leader of Egypt. Born in present day Greece, Muhammad Ali sought to create a European style military force. Born in present day Greece, Muhammad Ali sought to create a European style military force. He built a modern navy and large army – even invading Syria and threatening the Ottoman Empire. He built a modern navy and large army – even invading Syria and threatening the Ottoman Empire.

14 Reforms of Muhammad Ali Economics: Economics: Increase production of cotton, hemp, indigo, etc. – that were in demand in Europe because of the Industrial Revolution Increase production of cotton, hemp, indigo, etc. – that were in demand in Europe because of the Industrial RevolutionInfrastructure: Harbors and irrigation systems improved Profits from such reform were put into the Egyptian military

15 After Muhammad Ali Muhammad Ali was unable to use the Egyptian forces to destroy the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad Ali was unable to use the Egyptian forces to destroy the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad Alis descendants married Turkish families and established a line of rulers known as – KHEDIVES – who ruled until Muhammad Alis descendants married Turkish families and established a line of rulers known as – KHEDIVES – who ruled until 1952.

16 Egypt – the European Powers – the Suez Canal The khedives of Egypt were able to collect revenue – despite the ayan – but most of the money was spent on luxuries – leaving the khedives in debt. The khedives of Egypt were able to collect revenue – despite the ayan – but most of the money was spent on luxuries – leaving the khedives in debt. European financiers lent money to the khedives and were granted influence and economic power in exchange. European financiers lent money to the khedives and were granted influence and economic power in exchange. At first desiring Egyptian cotton, the Europeans turned their attention toward building a canal that would link the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea – Britain and India!!! At first desiring Egyptian cotton, the Europeans turned their attention toward building a canal that would link the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea – Britain and India!!! The canal led to massive European involvement and influence in Egypt. The canal led to massive European involvement and influence in Egypt. JIHAD – some conservatives proposed a jihad to drive the Europeans out JIHAD – some conservatives proposed a jihad to drive the Europeans out AL-AFGHANI and MUHAMMAD ABDUH stressed the need of Egyptians to borrow western knowledge AL-AFGHANI and MUHAMMAD ABDUH stressed the need of Egyptians to borrow western knowledge AHMAD ORABI – led a military uprising against the khedives and the Europeans AHMAD ORABI – led a military uprising against the khedives and the Europeans

17 The Sudan The Egyptians had long been attempting control of the people of the Sudan. The Egyptians had long been attempting control of the people of the Sudan. As the British took nominal control of Egypt, they became involved in the Egyptian push into the Sudan. As the British took nominal control of Egypt, they became involved in the Egyptian push into the Sudan. KHARTOUM – capital of Egyptian presence in Sudan. KHARTOUM – capital of Egyptian presence in Sudan. MUHAMMAD ACHMAD – united Sudanese against Egyptian and British advances in Sudan. MUHAMMAD ACHMAD – united Sudanese against Egyptian and British advances in Sudan. MAHDI – promised deliverers MAHDI – promised deliverers Jihad – against Egyptian heretics and British infidels Jihad – against Egyptian heretics and British infidels KHALIFA ABDALLAHI – led the Mahdi forces after the death of Muhammad Achmad KHALIFA ABDALLAHI – led the Mahdi forces after the death of Muhammad Achmad

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19 The Last Chinese Dynasty As the Ming Dynasty began to crumble, the MANCHU in northern China – Manchuria – organized as a threat to the dynasty. As the Ming Dynasty began to crumble, the MANCHU in northern China – Manchuria – organized as a threat to the dynasty. NURACI – combined the cavalry of the Manchu tribes into BANNER ARMIES. NURACI – combined the cavalry of the Manchu tribes into BANNER ARMIES. The Manchu adopted Chinese culture and political/social organization. The Manchu adopted Chinese culture and political/social organization. The Manchus began to assume territory and control in northern China – taking the name QING The Manchus began to assume territory and control in northern China – taking the name QING The QING overthrew the last Ming emperor – AND maintained the examination system, bureaucracy and the Mandate of Heaven. The QING overthrew the last Ming emperor – AND maintained the examination system, bureaucracy and the Mandate of Heaven.

20 Rot from Within By the early 19 th century – the ancient kingdom of China had grown weak – due in part to: By the early 19 th century – the ancient kingdom of China had grown weak – due in part to: Weak army Weak army Banditry in countryside Banditry in countryside Corrupt civil service Corrupt civil service Ill maintained infrastructure Ill maintained infrastructure Vastly increasing population Vastly increasing population

21 The internal weakness of China and its government left the nation open to abuse by foreign devils. The internal weakness of China and its government left the nation open to abuse by foreign devils. Chinese silks, porcelain and tea were highly valued by the Europeans. Chinese silks, porcelain and tea were highly valued by the Europeans. For many years the TRADE BALANCE between Europe and China was in Chinas favor – with large amounts of European gold and silver entering China. For many years the TRADE BALANCE between Europe and China was in Chinas favor – with large amounts of European gold and silver entering China.

22 The Opium War The British merchants found that they could alter the trade balance in Britains favor by selling opium to the Chinese. The British merchants found that they could alter the trade balance in Britains favor by selling opium to the Chinese. Suddenly, the Chinese were buying more than they were selling and gold and silver then left China for Europe. Suddenly, the Chinese were buying more than they were selling and gold and silver then left China for Europe. The opium began to destroy Chinese society and the Chinese moved to stop the importation of opium by the Europeans. The opium began to destroy Chinese society and the Chinese moved to stop the importation of opium by the Europeans. LIN ZEXU – 1830s – given orders by the emperor to destroy the opium trade – he ordered opium destroyed, warehouses seized, etc. European merchants were outraged. LIN ZEXU – 1830s – given orders by the emperor to destroy the opium trade – he ordered opium destroyed, warehouses seized, etc. European merchants were outraged.

23 1839 – Great Britain went to war with China in order to allow British merchants to sell opium and other products in China – Great Britain went to war with China in order to allow British merchants to sell opium and other products in China. The war ended with Britain victorious and China in a weakened position. The war ended with Britain victorious and China in a weakened position. Britain received the colony of Hong Kong Britain received the colony of Hong Kong Other foreign nations saw Chinas weakness and moved in to carve out SPHERES OF INFLUENCE. Other foreign nations saw Chinas weakness and moved in to carve out SPHERES OF INFLUENCE.

24 Opium Den

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27 Queen Victoria Queen Victoria r r

28 Victoria – not as pretty as her painting!!!

29 Chinas Internal Weakness Led to Rebellion Many Chinese were appalled by their nations weakness and sought to strengthen the nation by changing the government. Many Chinese were appalled by their nations weakness and sought to strengthen the nation by changing the government. TAIPING REBELLION – Hong Xiuquan – a Chinese mystic who claimed to be a brother of Christ – led thousands of Chinese to rebel in the Taiping Rebellion calling for a new dynasty of Heavenly Peace TAIPING REBELLION – Hong Xiuquan – a Chinese mystic who claimed to be a brother of Christ – led thousands of Chinese to rebel in the Taiping Rebellion calling for a new dynasty of Heavenly Peace The ruling QING DYNASTY responded by brutally suppressing the rebellion – killing millions of Chinese The ruling QING DYNASTY responded by brutally suppressing the rebellion – killing millions of Chinese

30 Hong Xiuquan

31 TONGZHI RESTORATION – self-strengthening movements The ruling elite tried to improve China through a series of reforms called the Tongzhi Restoration The ruling elite tried to improve China through a series of reforms called the Tongzhi Restoration Infrastructure – dikes and canals Infrastructure – dikes and canals Lowering farm taxes Lowering farm taxes Modernize military Modernize military Translate western books on law and technology into Chinese Translate western books on law and technology into Chinese

32 Reforms were met with hostility by the corrupt civil service and the Empress Dowager Cixi Reforms were met with hostility by the corrupt civil service and the Empress Dowager Cixi Cixi Old Buddha – arch conservative who feared all reform – thinking she and the royal family would lose power Cixi Old Buddha – arch conservative who feared all reform – thinking she and the royal family would lose power She controlled power from behind the scenes She controlled power from behind the scenes

33 Cixi

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35 The Boxer Rebellion – I should have worn briefs By 1900, China was unofficially administered by Europeans, Japanese and Americans who controlled the economy and trade. By 1900, China was unofficially administered by Europeans, Japanese and Americans who controlled the economy and trade. The Society of Harmonious Fists Boxers began an anti- foreigner movement that led to a nationwide attack on all foreigners in an attempt to rid China of outside influences. The Society of Harmonious Fists Boxers began an anti- foreigner movement that led to a nationwide attack on all foreigners in an attempt to rid China of outside influences. The Boxer Rebellion was put down by foreign armies which only subjugated China even more. The Boxer Rebellion was put down by foreign armies which only subjugated China even more. By 1908 – Cixi was dead and China was ruled by a three year old emperor. By 1908 – Cixi was dead and China was ruled by a three year old emperor.

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