Presentation on theme: "Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China Chapter 26."— Presentation transcript:
1Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China Chapter 26
2Ottoman to Turk: How Nationalism Destroys Empires After the last attempt to take Vienna and the lands of the Habsburgs, the Ottoman Empire began a slow decline and retreat in eastern Europe.Wars with Russia, and independence movements in Greece and Serbia led to the Ottoman Empire being called the “sick man of Europe.”
4Can the Ottomans reform themselves? Over the centuries, the imperial system led to corruption, lack of modernization, and simmering nationalism.Selim III r attempted to reform the imperial bureaucracy and military – but factionalism kept the reforms from happening.The Janissaries revolted in 1807 and he was killed.
5Mahmud II – 1826 – Mahmed II had secretly used European advisors to created a small but elite force. The Janissaries revolted in 1826 – only to find themselves victims of the elite guard of the sultan. The Janissaries, their families, and their religious advisors were slaughtered.
6TanzimatFreed from the Janissaries, Mahmud instituted reforms – especially after cowing the AYAN – provincial nobles.Mahmud rejected the call of the Ulama to strengthen the empire through a return to the past. Mahmud called for modernization and westernization.A period if reforms known as the TANZIMAT were instituted from
7Tanzimat University training westernized and expanded European sciences and mathematics taughtPostal and telegraph systems createdRailwaysNewspapersLegal reforms1876 constitution – European based***minority religious groups prospered******artisans were hurt by the influx of European goods******reform for women had been debated – seclusion, veiling, polygamy – but nothing was acted upon until after the sultans***
8Can One Reform and Modernized and Maintain a Sultan? New modern Ottoman elites clashed with the Ulama and ayan.Old vs. newABDUL HAMID – sultan – attempted to re-impose autocratic rule in the face of the growing demand among the elites for continued reform.He nullified the constitution and revoked civil liberties.BUT – Abdul Hamid continued the modernization of the military and a railway “Berlin to Baghdad.”
9Young Turks 1908 – Abdul Hamid removed from power in a coup d’etat OTTOMAN SOCIETY FOR UNION AND PROGRESS – established in Paris in 1889 – Turkish intellectuals who pledged loyalty to the empire – but wanted even greater reform.1908 – the Young Turks had the sympathy of the militaryA new sultan was installed as a symbol of unity – MEHMED V – but the military and Young Turks vied for power. Divisions among the reformers and military kept true reform from happening – as the empire broke apart.
10The Ottoman alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in WWI finished the empire and sultanate
11EGYPTWhile the Arab peoples of the Ottoman Empire resented the rule of the Turks, they also feared the growing power of the Europeans – especially as the Europeans took control of Muslim states in India, Indonesia, Algeria, etc.Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt was met by the armies of the MAMLUK. Mamluk meant “slave” and they were Egyptian vassals of the Ottoman Empire.The Malmuk leader MURAD dismissed Napoleon and claimed superiority over the Europeans.The slaughter of the Mamluk forces shocked the Muslim world and illustrated the technological backwardness of the Muslim armies.
13Muhammad AliAfter the retreat of the French, MUHAMMAD ALI established himself as leader of Egypt.Born in present day Greece, Muhammad Ali sought to create a European style military force.He built a modern navy and large army – even invading Syria and threatening the Ottoman Empire.
14Reforms of Muhammad Ali Economics:Increase production of cotton, hemp, indigo, etc. – that were in demand in Europe because of the Industrial RevolutionInfrastructure:Harbors and irrigation systems improvedProfits from such reform were put into the Egyptian military
15After Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali was unable to use the Egyptian forces to destroy the Ottoman Empire.Muhammad Ali’s descendants married Turkish families and established a line of rulers known as – KHEDIVES – who ruled until 1952.
16Egypt – the European Powers – the Suez Canal The khedives of Egypt were able to collect revenue – despite the ayan – but most of the money was spent on luxuries – leaving the khedives in debt.European financiers lent money to the khedives and were granted influence and economic power in exchange.At first desiring Egyptian cotton, the Europeans turned their attention toward building a canal that would link the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea – Britain and India!!!The canal led to massive European involvement and influence in Egypt.JIHAD – some conservatives proposed a jihad to drive the Europeans outAL-AFGHANI and MUHAMMAD ABDUH stressed the need of Egyptians to borrow western knowledgeAHMAD ORABI – led a military uprising against the khedives and the Europeans
17The SudanThe Egyptians had long been attempting control of the people of the Sudan.As the British took nominal control of Egypt, they became involved in the Egyptian push into the Sudan.KHARTOUM – capital of Egyptian presence in Sudan.MUHAMMAD ACHMAD – united Sudanese against Egyptian and British advances in Sudan.MAHDI – promised deliverersJihad – against Egyptian heretics and British infidelsKHALIFA ABDALLAHI – led the Mahdi forces after the death of Muhammad Achmad
19The Last Chinese Dynasty As the Ming Dynasty began to crumble, the MANCHU in northern China – Manchuria – organized as a threat to the dynasty.NURACI – combined the cavalry of the Manchu tribes into BANNER ARMIES.The Manchu adopted Chinese culture and political/social organization.The Manchus began to assume territory and control in northern China – taking the name QINGThe QING overthrew the last Ming emperor – AND maintained the examination system, bureaucracy and the Mandate of Heaven.
20Rot from WithinBy the early 19th century – the ancient kingdom of China had grown weak – due in part to:Weak armyBanditry in countrysideCorrupt civil serviceIll maintained infrastructureVastly increasing population
21The internal weakness of China and its government left the nation open to abuse by “foreign devils.” Chinese silks, porcelain and tea were highly valued by the Europeans.For many years the TRADE BALANCE between Europe and China was in China’s favor – with large amounts of European gold and silver entering China.
22The Opium WarThe British merchants found that they could alter the trade balance in Britain’s favor by selling opium to the Chinese.Suddenly, the Chinese were buying more than they were selling and gold and silver then left China for Europe.The opium began to destroy Chinese society and the Chinese moved to stop the importation of opium by the Europeans.LIN ZEXU – 1830s – given orders by the emperor to destroy the opium trade – he ordered opium destroyed, warehouses seized, etc. European merchants were outraged.
231839 – Great Britain went to war with China in order to allow British merchants to sell opium and other products in China.The war ended with Britain victorious and China in a weakened position.Britain received the colony of Hong KongOther foreign nations saw China’s weakness and moved in to carve out SPHERES OF INFLUENCE.
29China’s Internal Weakness Led to Rebellion Many Chinese were appalled by their nation’s weakness and sought to strengthen the nation by changing the government.TAIPING REBELLION – Hong Xiuquan – a Chinese mystic who claimed to be a brother of Christ – led thousands of Chinese to rebel in the Taiping Rebellion calling for a new dynasty of “Heavenly Peace”The ruling QING DYNASTY responded by brutally suppressing the rebellion – killing millions of Chinese
31TONGZHI RESTORATION – self-strengthening movements The ruling elite tried to improve China through a series of reforms called the Tongzhi RestorationInfrastructure – dikes and canalsLowering farm taxesModernize militaryTranslate western books on law and technology into Chinese
32Reforms were met with hostility by the corrupt civil service and the Empress Dowager Cixi Cixi “Old Buddha” – arch conservative who feared all reform – thinking she and the royal family would lose powerShe controlled power from behind the scenes
35The Boxer Rebellion – “I should have worn briefs” By 1900, China was unofficially administered by Europeans, Japanese and Americans who controlled the economy and trade.The Society of Harmonious Fists “Boxers” began an anti-foreigner movement that led to a nationwide attack on all foreigners in an attempt to rid China of outside influences.The Boxer Rebellion was put down by foreign armies which only subjugated China even more.By 1908 – Cixi was dead and China was “ruled” by a three year old emperor.