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Decline of Ottomans and Qing China Ch 26. I. Introduction China China Declined and reemerged… and declined again Declined and reemerged… and declined.

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Presentation on theme: "Decline of Ottomans and Qing China Ch 26. I. Introduction China China Declined and reemerged… and declined again Declined and reemerged… and declined."— Presentation transcript:

1 Decline of Ottomans and Qing China Ch 26

2 I. Introduction China China Declined and reemerged… and declined again Declined and reemerged… and declined again China continued its cycle of prosperity and decline China continued its cycle of prosperity and decline Nomads were a problem Nomads were a problem Period of general prosperity under the Manchu nomads Period of general prosperity under the Manchu nomads Greatly declined due to outside influences Greatly declined due to outside influences Numerous rebellions and uprisings erupted near the end of reign Numerous rebellions and uprisings erupted near the end of reign

3 I. Introduction Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Prosperous years Prosperous years Started loosing territory in early 17 th century Started loosing territory in early 17 th century Went through numerous reforms to try to stop the decline Went through numerous reforms to try to stop the decline

4 II. Ottoman Empire Ottoman empire suffered from weak rulers Ottoman empire suffered from weak rulers Janissaries and religious leaders tried to gain more power Janissaries and religious leaders tried to gain more power Ayan (wealthy land-owners) cheated sultans Ayan (wealthy land-owners) cheated sultans Europeans brought decline of merchants Europeans brought decline of merchants Decreased treasury Decreased treasury Couldn’t pay soldiers and buy supplies Couldn’t pay soldiers and buy supplies

5 II. Ottoman Empire Europeans take over outer boundaries Europeans take over outer boundaries Russian gain warm water port on Black Sea Russian gain warm water port on Black Sea Revolts in Greece, Serbia and Balkans Revolts in Greece, Serbia and Balkans Dominance in the Mediterranean Sea Dominance in the Mediterranean Sea Attempts at reforms Attempts at reforms Power struggle between types of reforms Power struggle between types of reforms Religious and social changes competed Religious and social changes competed Some preferred to go back to traditional religious values and rule Some preferred to go back to traditional religious values and rule Westernization- ambassadors, military and politics Westernization- ambassadors, military and politics

6 II. Ottoman Empire Reformers Reformers Sultan Selim III Sultan Selim III Improve administration Improve administration Angered bureaucracy Angered bureaucracy New Army and Navy- angered Janissaries New Army and Navy- angered Janissaries Overthrown by Janissaries in 1807 Overthrown by Janissaries in 1807

7 II. Ottoman Empire Sultan Mahmud II Sultan Mahmud II Built small well trained private army Built small well trained private army Wiped out Janissaries Wiped out Janissaries Agents incited mutiny-Janissaries riot- Slaughtered with their families in the streets Agents incited mutiny-Janissaries riot- Slaughtered with their families in the streets Expanded and Westernized military Expanded and Westernized military European advisors European advisors Creates ambassadors to Europe Creates ambassadors to Europe Ulama- pushed for traditional theocracy Ulama- pushed for traditional theocracy

8 II. Ottoman Empire Tansimat reforms ( ) Tansimat reforms ( ) Westernized Education Westernized Education Postal Office, Telegraph and Railroads Postal Office, Telegraph and Railroads Removed tariffs- destroyed merchants/artisans Removed tariffs- destroyed merchants/artisans Abdul Hamid ( ) Abdul Hamid ( ) Tried to restrict power of others Tried to restrict power of others Despotic Absolutism Despotic Absolutism Restricted civil liberties- killed/tortured dissidents Restricted civil liberties- killed/tortured dissidents Still westernized army and built rail between Baghdad and Berlin Still westernized army and built rail between Baghdad and Berlin

9 II. Ottoman Empire Ottoman Society for Union and Progress Ottoman Society for Union and Progress Paris in 1889 Paris in 1889 Political agitators- young Turks Political agitators- young Turks Started to overthrow sultanate but became divided Started to overthrow sultanate but became divided Then WWI distracted them Then WWI distracted them Eventually called the “Sick man of Europe” Eventually called the “Sick man of Europe”

10 III. Egypt and Sudan Tried to reverse decline of Ottoman empire Tried to reverse decline of Ottoman empire Egypt Egypt Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798 Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798 Not interested in Egypt but India Not interested in Egypt but India Slaughtered Mamluk forces Slaughtered Mamluk forces Murad underestimated the French Murad underestimated the French Had to retreat due to British destroying French fleet Had to retreat due to British destroying French fleet

11 III. Egypt and Sudan Muhammad Ali (1801) Muhammad Ali (1801) Reformed military Reformed military French officers, French tactics and weapons and conscription of peasants French officers, French tactics and weapons and conscription of peasants Told peasants to work harder to pay for military Told peasants to work harder to pay for military Descendants- Khedives Descendants- Khedives- 1952

12 III. Egypt and Sudan Europeans cause more problems for Egypt Europeans cause more problems for Egypt Push for Cotton Push for Cotton Europeans loaned numerous amounts to Khedives Europeans loaned numerous amounts to Khedives Couldn’t manage their money Couldn’t manage their money Pushed for the building of the Suez Canal Pushed for the building of the Suez Canal

13 III. Egypt and Sudan Al Afghani ( )and Muhammad Abduh ( ) Al Afghani ( )and Muhammad Abduh ( ) Pushed for borrowing technology from Europe Pushed for borrowing technology from Europe Argued that the Europeans became great due to Islamic innovation Argued that the Europeans became great due to Islamic innovation Qur’an is not the only source of all truth Qur’an is not the only source of all truth Ahmad Orabi Ahmad Orabi Led a revolt in 1882 due to dismissal of Egyptian soldiers Led a revolt in 1882 due to dismissal of Egyptian soldiers Khedives helped by British and crushed Orabi’s forces Khedives helped by British and crushed Orabi’s forces

14 III. Egypt and Sudan Mahdi Mahdi Muhammad Achmad declared Mahdi (deliverer) Muhammad Achmad declared Mahdi (deliverer) Jihad on “corrupt” Egyptians and Europeans Jihad on “corrupt” Egyptians and Europeans Khalifa Abdalli Khalifa Abdalli Took over after Muhammad died of Typhus Took over after Muhammad died of Typhus Forbade drinking, smoking and dancing Forbade drinking, smoking and dancing Strict punishment for immorality Strict punishment for immorality Continued Jihad until General Kitchener slaughtered the Mahdi forces at the battle of Omdurman (1898) Continued Jihad until General Kitchener slaughtered the Mahdi forces at the battle of Omdurman (1898)

15 IV. Last Chinese Dynasty Manchu nomads consistently raided northern China but were not united Manchu nomads consistently raided northern China but were not united Nurhaci ( ) Nurhaci ( ) United tribes and formed the banner armies United tribes and formed the banner armies Conquered Manchuria Conquered Manchuria Reorganized the Manchu to follow Chinese rule/culture Reorganized the Manchu to follow Chinese rule/culture

16 IV. Last Chinese Dynasty Qing Empire Qing Empire Ming Dynasty was weak and asked Manchus to help fight rebellion Ming Dynasty was weak and asked Manchus to help fight rebellion Big Mistake Big Mistake Conquered in 1644 Conquered in 1644 Manchu rule Manchu rule Kept civil service exam Kept civil service exam Pardoned rebels from early conquest Pardoned rebels from early conquest Adopted Confucian rituals Adopted Confucian rituals Son of Heaven Ideology Son of Heaven Ideology Patrons of arts and Confucianism (Kangxi) Patrons of arts and Confucianism (Kangxi)

17 IV. Last Chinese Dynasty Qing society Qing society Hierarchal ranking Hierarchal ranking Women not as valuable Women not as valuable Infantcide Infantcide Tried to help farmers/peasants Tried to help farmers/peasants 10% of budget to repairing/building dikes, canals, roads and irrigation 10% of budget to repairing/building dikes, canals, roads and irrigation Diversified crops Diversified crops Tea Tea Brought large amounts of European silver in economy Brought large amounts of European silver in economy Compradors- wealthy merchant class Compradors- wealthy merchant class

18 IV. Last Chinese Dynasty Qing Decline Qing Decline Corruption Corruption Cheating on exams Cheating on exams Bureaucracy based on who you know and not what you know Bureaucracy based on who you know and not what you know Money went to wealthy and not military Money went to wealthy and not military Dikes, irrigation and roads crumbled Dikes, irrigation and roads crumbled Famine and disease Famine and disease

19 IV. Last Chinese Dynasty Opium Opium Huge cash crop from India Huge cash crop from India Way to turn the tides of European bullion going into China Way to turn the tides of European bullion going into China Huge amounts left china Huge amounts left china 1% addicted 1% addicted Chinese tried to outlaw- didn’t work Chinese tried to outlaw- didn’t work Lin Zexu- enforced laws Lin Zexu- enforced laws Opium War Opium War British won and increase Opium trade British won and increase Opium trade Later forced open trade and diplomatic exchange Later forced open trade and diplomatic exchange

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21 IV. Last Chinese Dynasty Rebellions Rebellions Taiping Rebellion Taiping Rebellion Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan Massive rebellion in south ( ) Massive rebellion in south ( ) Attacked Confucianism and scholar-gentry Attacked Confucianism and scholar-gentry Influenced Self-strengthening movement Influenced Self-strengthening movement Westernization of Chinese infrastructure Westernization of Chinese infrastructure Boxer Rebellion Boxer Rebellion Sought to rid China of European influence Sought to rid China of European influence Attacked foreigners and their religions Attacked foreigners and their religions Put down by the British Put down by the British Eventually collapsed in 1911 when a republic was established Eventually collapsed in 1911 when a republic was established

22 V. Conclusion China no longer was ruled by a dynasty China no longer was ruled by a dynasty Ottoman empire continued decline until it occupied only modern day Turkey Ottoman empire continued decline until it occupied only modern day Turkey Westernization of China and Muslim world Westernization of China and Muslim world


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