Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Philosophical Issues in Neuroscience Dr. Kelley Kline FSU.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Philosophical Issues in Neuroscience Dr. Kelley Kline FSU."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philosophical Issues in Neuroscience Dr. Kelley Kline FSU

2 I. What is Physiological Psychology? The study of the biological basis of behavior. The study of the biological basis of behavior. Behavior is observed & the putative mechanisms underlying such behavior is examined. Behavior is observed & the putative mechanisms underlying such behavior is examined. Most research focuses on brain mechanisms. Most research focuses on brain mechanisms.

3 II. Fields related to physiological Psychology: Neurologystudy of brain disease Neurologystudy of brain disease Neurophysiologystudy of brain function Neurophysiologystudy of brain function Neuropsychologystudy & treatment of brain damage in people Neuropsychologystudy & treatment of brain damage in people Psychophysiologystudy of relationship between Psychophysiologystudy of relationship between the ANS & behavior the ANS & behavior Psychophysicsstudy of sensory stimuli & Psychophysicsstudy of sensory stimuli & behavior behavior

4 Physiological Research draws from diverse paradigms: 1. Human & nonhuman subjects 1. Human & nonhuman subjects 2. Experiments, quasi-experimental studies, & case studies 2. Experiments, quasi-experimental studies, & case studies 3. Pure & applied research 3. Pure & applied research

5 III. The Search for the soul: Since earliest times, humankind has engaged in a search for the soul & the body part in which it is housed. A # of body parts were thought to house the soul: liver, blood, & heart.

6 The Heart vs. The Brain Hypothesis: Many thought the soul was in the heart. Many thought the soul was in the heart. Greeks noticed that people died from chest wounds, leading them to infer the mind is in the heart.

7 Aristotle ( B.C.) Thought the heart is the source of mental processes because it is warm & active. The brain, cool by contrast, was thought to cool the blood & heart.

8 Hippocrates: argued for the brain hypothesis ( B.C.) He observed loss of mental functions associated with brain injury. He observed loss of mental functions associated with brain injury. He concluded all mental processes must be brain processes. Hence, the soul or mind must be located in the brain. He concluded all mental processes must be brain processes. Hence, the soul or mind must be located in the brain. Mind & brain were one. Mind & brain were one.

9 Galen: The Roman Physician ( A.D.) Romes leading physician & surgeon to gladiators, noticed link between brain injury & loss of mental functions. Romes leading physician & surgeon to gladiators, noticed link between brain injury & loss of mental functions. Argued that nerves from sense organs go to the brain, not the heart. Argued that nerves from sense organs go to the brain, not the heart.

10 IV. The Mind/Body Problem: What is it??? What is it??? The relationship between the mind & the brain. The relationship between the mind & the brain. Two basic views: dualism & monism Two basic views: dualism & monism

11 A. Rene Descartes: Dualism Argued the mind exists independently of the brain, but interacts with the brain through the pineal gland to control behavior. Argued the mind exists independently of the brain, but interacts with the brain through the pineal gland to control behavior. Pineal gland was seat of soul. Pineal gland was seat of soul. How can a non-material mind produce movements in a material body???? How can a non-material mind produce movements in a material body????

12 Dualists try to get around this problem by saying: 1. The mind & body operate in parallel without interacting. 1. The mind & body operate in parallel without interacting. 2. The body can affect the mind, but the mind cant affect the body. 2. The body can affect the mind, but the mind cant affect the body. Both offer dualists a loophole to explain behavior without considering the mind. Both offer dualists a loophole to explain behavior without considering the mind.

13 B. Monism: Avoids the mind/body problem, because it argues that the mind & body are the same thing. Avoids the mind/body problem, because it argues that the mind & body are the same thing. Most popular among scholars*** Most popular among scholars*** Monist materialism– argues that everything that exists is material. Monist materialism– argues that everything that exists is material. Psychological experiences are the result of physical events taking place in our brains. Psychological experiences are the result of physical events taking place in our brains.

14 C. Current view We really dont know whether mental processes come first or brain processes come first? We really dont know whether mental processes come first or brain processes come first?

15 V. Phrenology: Heads up!!! Studied individual differences in mental functions by examining the bumps on the skull. Studied individual differences in mental functions by examining the bumps on the skull. Theorya well-developed brain region associated with a given function (memory) would produce a larger bump on the skull, indicating greater performance in that area. Theorya well-developed brain region associated with a given function (memory) would produce a larger bump on the skull, indicating greater performance in that area.

16 Phrenologists: Gull & Spurzheim Identified a list of traits they could examine people for. Identified a list of traits they could examine people for. Although Gall gathered an impressive amount of data, there were no statistics to examine his findings. Although Gall gathered an impressive amount of data, there were no statistics to examine his findings. His correct observations can easily be explained by confirmation bias. His correct observations can easily be explained by confirmation bias.

17 Behavioral Neurology: Broca Paul Broca- found an area of brain damage associated with a language disorder. Paul Broca- found an area of brain damage associated with a language disorder. Language must be produced by the left frontal lobe. Language must be produced by the left frontal lobe. Method laid foundation for neurology & neuropsychology. Method laid foundation for neurology & neuropsychology.


Download ppt "Philosophical Issues in Neuroscience Dr. Kelley Kline FSU."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google