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Physiology and behavior: Localization of function

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1 Physiology and behavior: Localization of function
The Brain Physiology and behavior: Localization of function Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain. Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behavior (Evaluate two relevant studies).

2 Early investigation of localization of function
Phrenology The attempt to make inferences about ones personality and intelligence by examining skull formation. Done by manually searching for bumps and indentations. Franz Joseph Gall

3 In general…. If there is a bump or protrusion in that area it indicates MORE of that ability or trait. If there is an indentation it indicates a deficiency of that ability or trait.

4 Phrenology? Do you think it is a valid science?
Work was picked up by Cesare Lombroso These ideas, although dangerous, are still the basis behind modern day criminal profiling.

5 Case studies of people with naturally occurring brain damage
Phineas Gage Paul Broca Worked with a patient he called “Tan” “Tan” could only say the word “Tan” “Tan” died

6 Broca’s Area In post-mortem autopsy, Broca found damage in the left frontal area of Tan’s brain. Broca discovered the area of our brain that is responsible for making our mouth move during speech.

7 Broca’s Aphasia Aphasia means damage to a speech area of our brain.
Very common in TBI or stroke patients.

8 Sarah Scott

9 Carl Wernicke Discovered the area of our brain that deals with the comprehension of written and spoken speech. Left temporal lobe. So what do you think Wernicke’s Aphasia is like?

10 Studies of individuals who have undergone brain surgery

11 HM HM (Henry Gustav Molaison) had epilepsy and had part of his temporal lobes removed in hope to reduce seizures. They took out a little too much and removed part of his hippocampus. Experienced both Retrograde and Anterograde Amnesia.

12 Memories and the Hippocampus
Retrograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia Forget past. It can be time period, event or select person. Cannot form new memories.

13 Roger Sperry and the Split Brain
The top of our brain is divided into a left and right hemisphere. Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa. This is called Brain Lateralization. Lefties are better at spatial and creative tasks. Righties are better at logic.

14 Roger Sperry and the Split Brain
Corpus Collosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex. Sperry first experimented by taking out the Corpus Collosum from cats. Then tried it on 10 epileptic patients.

15 They became known as split brain patients.

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