Presentation on theme: "The Brain The human brain is the site of the major coordination in the nervous system."— Presentation transcript:
The Brain The human brain is the site of the major coordination in the nervous system.
The Brain The Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Medulla Pituitary gland Hypothalamus
Areas of the brain The brain is composed of Cerebral Hemispheres, Cerebellum and Medulla Medulla Cerebral Hemispheres Cerebellum
medulla Controls autonomic activities including heart rate, and ventilation rate Impulse transmitted from medulla via sympathetic or parasympathetic branch of automatic nervous system Medulla Cerebral Hemispheres Cerebellum
cerebellum Co-ordination of body movement, balance and posture Cerebral Hemispheres Cerebellum
Highly Folded and so has a large SA. Patients with injuries to specific parts of the brain can be studied to see how their functions are altered. cerebrum/cerebral hemispheres Medulla Cerebral Hemispheres Cerebellum
Different parts of the brain can be stimulated electrically to see which muscles in the body respond Conversely different parts of the body can be stimulated to see which parts of the brain show electrical activity. More recently MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) has been used in brain study cerebrum/cerebral hemispheres
Areas of the cerebrum
The Areas can be split into 3 groups Sensory Areas Motor Areas Association Areas
Association Motor Sensory Sensory area for impulses from eyes
cerebrum/cerebral hemispheres Sensory areas of the cerebral hemispheres receive impulses from sense organs and transmit them to the association areas The association areas of the cerebral hemispheres receive impulses - interpret them in the light of similar past experiences and transmit impulses to motor areas The motor areas transmit impulses to the effectors The size of the sensory and motor areas is related to the number of receptors in that area The left and right cerebral hemispheres control the opposite sides of the body
Mapping of the sensory & motor areas to the body
Sensory & Motor Maps The maps show that regions of the body with many sensory (or motor) neurones have corresponding large areas of the cerebrum linked to them. So for example the lips occupy a larger region of the sensory cortex than the shoulder, because there are more sensory neurones in the lips.
Association Areas Are used to compare sensory input with previous experiences, and make decisions These areas are involved in speech, understanding and memory retrieval The frontal lobes are large in humans and it is thought that they responsible for higher functions like abstract thought, personality & emotion.
Speech The left side of the brain Patients with speech problems gave 1 st clues about how the brain controls language 1981 Dr Paul Broca described a patient who could only say the word tan. When the patient died Broca examined the brain and found damage to the left cerebral hemisphere This part of the brain is now know as Brocas area
Brocas Area Brocas area
Wernickes Area In 1967 Karl Wernicke noticed damage to another region of the cortex. Werniches area is connected to Brocas area by a bundle of nerve fibres. If this was damaged the patient can understand language but cannot repeat words. So Werniches area is concerned with understanding language. Brocas area is concerned with controlling the muscles that produce speech
Wernickes Area Wernickes area
Visual Processing The visual sensory area is at the back of the brain & receives sensory input from the optic nerves The 2 hemispheres see slightly different images from the opposite of the visual field, and differences can be used to judge distance
Summary Sensory areas – receive input from receptors Motor areas – Origin of impulses which bring about voluntary movements These receive/transmit impulses from the opposite side of the body Association areas – interpret sensory information in the light of experience