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Lecture 1- 2008 ProSeminar in Biological Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 1- 2008 ProSeminar in Biological Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture ProSeminar in Biological Psychology

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3 10% theory Natural Selection Clinical Neurology fMRI, PET, EEG Absolutely no evidence to support 10% theory

4 How well do you really know your brain?

5 Reasoning Planning Speech Production Movement Emotions Problem solving Personality Movement Orientation Recognition Perception of stimuli Visual Processing Perception & Recognition of auditory stimuli Memory Speech Comprehension Forebrain telencephalon

6 What is your brain made of?

7 Brain Composition: H % Lipids10-12% Proteins 8% Carbs 1% Brain mostly composed of…

8 Gray Matter: 40% White Matter: 60% Synapses: 0.15 quadrillion Brain has more pathways: Receptors located on neurons in membrane

9 2 Types of Cells in NS Nerve Cells Glial Cells (Neurons) (Glia) Electrical Signaling Supportive Communicate with other cells No signaling (90%)

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14 IONOTROPIC (LIGAND BINDING RECEPTOR) METABOTROPIC (G-PROTEIN COUPLED RECEPTOR)

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17 Will the human brain ever completely understand its own workings? 3 major debates Mind vs Brain (monism/dualism) Localism vs holism (Neurons) Nature of neural communication

18 Luigi Galvani ( ) Italian Physician Physicist Debate: Nature of Neural Communication "While one of those who were assisting me touched lightly, and by chance, the point of his scalpel to the internal crural nerves of the frog, suddenly all the muscles of its limbs were seen to be so contracted that they seemed to have fallen into tonic convulsions. “  Electrical Stimulation of frog legs  Contraction of the muscles “Animal Electricity”

19 Camillo Golgi ( ) Italian Physician: Silver Staining Method – continuous mass of tissues…one cytoplasm (holism) Santiago Ramon y Cajal ( ) Spanish Histologist Labeled Cells “neuron doctrine” – discrete entities Nobel Prize 1906: Research on structure of the nervous Debate: Nature of Neural Communication

20 1.Neurons are discrete and autonomous cells that can interact 2.Synapses are gaps that separate neurons 3.Information is transmitted in one direction from dendrites (input) to the axon (output) Debate: Nature of Neural Communication

21 Franz Joseph Gall ( ) German Physician Neuroanatomist  brought Neuroanatomy & Psychology together  discrete regions of brain controls specific functions = mental state  localization Phrenology (personology) Debate: Localism vs Holism

22 Localism!!!

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24 Wilder Penfield ( ) American-Born Canadian Neurosurgeon: Greatest neurosurgeon of all times mapped the brain direct stimulation of the brain “Grandmother Cell"

25 Localism vs holism?

26 Rene Descartes ( ) Mind-Body Question  Dualist: mind separate from body  Mechanist: Body is like a machine  Mind controls the machine  Body tells mind about the environment Pipes = nerves Water = fluids in body Hidden Value = Pineal Mind vs Brain

27 Control Valve: Pineal Gland “Seat of the Soul” First technical model for the NS

28 Innervation of the Pineal Dependent on the Light/Dark Cycle

29 Mind vs Brain??? Monism: Mind is product of brain Dualism: Brain is physical mind is not Mind-Body Question..are you a monist or a dualist? Debate: Mind vs Brain

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