Presentation on theme: "Happy Homecoming Friday!!!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Happy Homecoming Friday!!! 1. Which of the following is required for osmosis to occur?A. An enzymeB. A fully permeable membraneC. ATPD. A solute concentration gradient2. Which of the following processes take place during interphase?I. RespirationII. Active transportIII. Protein synthesisIV.Replication of DNAA. I onlyB. I and II onlyC. I, II and III onlyI, II, III and IV
2 Pelican Book 1st Then IB book 3.3 THEN go over diffusion/osmosis lab Test Corrections due when?!?!
7 Chemical formulas not required! Simple shapes! Bases: Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.Chemical formulas not required! Simple shapes!Bases:ATGCCarbon #s3.3.2 State the names of the four bases in DNA.
9 3.3.3 Outline how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand. Phosphodiester bond = cov5’ P group + 3’ OH groupCondensation rxn—waterReleasedNucleotides added to 3’ end!Sugar-phosphate backbone
11 3.3.4 Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds. A-T; G-CA, G are purines—biggerT, C are pyrimidines—smallerConsistent width of dbl helixOpposite directions (anti-parallel)
12 3.3.5 Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA TOK:story of elucidation of DNA structure(collaboration; Watson and Crick’s discovery of 3D structure dependent on Franklin’s data…shared without her knowledge or consent!!!)
16 Interphase, before cell division Explain DNA replication in terms of unwinding the double helix and separation of the strands by helicase, followed by formation of the new complementary strands by DNA polymerase.Interphase, before cell divisionChromatinHelicase (100s of base pairs per sec!)Moves base pair at a time, breaks H bondsEach strand is now a templateDNA polymerasesCovalent bonds b/w new strand n’tidesFree nucleotides (nucleoside triphosphates)
19 Double stranded, complementary Each becomes a template 3.4.2 Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA.Double stranded, complementaryEach becomes a templateComplementary Identical daughter strandsAccuracy for passing on informationGene expressionFatal mistakes
25 3. 5. 1. Compare the structure of RNA and DNA 3.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. **similarities & differences!! 5 are listed (not 10!):DNARNA5-C sugarDeoxyribose sugarRibose sugarEach nucleotide has 1 of 4 nitrogenous basesBases are C, G, A, TBases are C, G, A, UDouble-strandedSingle-stranded
26 Why’s the nucleus called the “control center”? Protein synthesisSome are enzymesEffects biochemistry of cell...carbs, lipids, etc.
33 Gene region on DNA is unzipped 3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase.Gene region on DNA is unzippedRNA polymerase moves along template DNA strand (1) & complementary RNA n’tides pairU instead of TCompl copy of ONE GENE of the chromosome
34 Codes for ONE amino acid “codon” Sequence for polypeptide 3.5.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases.3 mRNA basesCodes for ONE amino acid“codon”Sequence for polypeptide
36 Happy THURSDAY!!! March 4th! Test Monday, Articles & Review Tomorrow! 1. During the process of translation which of the following statements describes the relationship between nucleic acids?A. Anticodons on mRNA bind to complementary codons on DNA.B. Anticodons on tRNA bind to complementary codons on mRNA.C. Bases on DNA bind to complementary bases on mRNA.D. A single strand of mRNA is produced from the DNA in the nucleus.2. Define the term degenerate as it relates to the genetic code. (1 mark)more than one codon / base triplet codes for an amino acid 1
38 3.5.4 Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation. Include the roles of messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), codons, anticodons, ribosomes and amino acids.
39 RNAmRNA:complementary copy of a gene, codes for one polypeptiderRNA:ribosomal (ribosome = rRNA + ribosomal protein)tRNA:transfers ONE of the 20 AA to ribosome for polypeptide formationanticodon complementary to codon, determines which AA attaches to tRNA
40 mRNA leaves through nuclear pore, goes to ribosome @ 1st 2 codons 3.5.4 Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation.mRNA leaves through nuclear pore, goes to 1st 2 codons
41 tRNA anticodons match up, bring amino acids in sequence 3.5.4 Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation.tRNA anticodons match up, bring amino acids in sequence
42 3.5.4 Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation. 2nd tRNA brings next one, condensation rxn cov bond creates peptide bond
43 tRNA breaks bond w/amino acid, floats away & reloads 3.5.4 Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation.tRNA breaks bond w/amino acid, floats away & reloadsRibosome moves down mRNA, ...until stop codon: all dissociate
55 3.5.5 Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide. Originally (1940s) 1 gene 1 enzyme all proteins many proteins are multiple polypeptides, each translated by a separate genewould invariably code for one polypeptide, but many exceptions have been discovered.ACTUALLY...one mRNA can be modified in different ways to produce different polypeptides...TOK: The way in which theories are modified as related evidence accumulates could be discussed, and whether contrary evidence should cause a theory to be discarded immediately if there are exceptions to it. Where a theory is suddenly and totally abandoned, to be replaced by a different theory, this is known as a paradigm shift.