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Happy Homecoming Friday!!! 1. Which of the following is required for osmosis to occur? A.An enzyme B.A fully permeable membrane C.ATP D.A solute concentration.

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Presentation on theme: "Happy Homecoming Friday!!! 1. Which of the following is required for osmosis to occur? A.An enzyme B.A fully permeable membrane C.ATP D.A solute concentration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Happy Homecoming Friday!!! 1. Which of the following is required for osmosis to occur? A.An enzyme B.A fully permeable membrane C.ATP D.A solute concentration gradient 2. Which of the following processes take place during interphase? I.Respiration II.Active transport III.Protein synthesis IV.Replication of DNA A. I only B. I and II only C. I, II and III only D.I, II, III and IV

2 Pelican Book 1 st Then IB book 3.3 THEN go over diffusion/osmosis lab Test Corrections due when?!?!

3 IB Topics: DNA, Transcription, Translation 3.3, 3.4, 3.5

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5 3.3 DNA Structure

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7 3.3.1 Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate. Chemical formulas not required! Simple shapes! Bases: –A –T –G –C Carbon #s State the names of the four bases in DNA.

8 PYRIMIDINES

9 3.3.3Outline how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand. Phosphodiester bond = cov 5 P group + 3 OH group Condensation rxnwater Released Nucleotides added to 3 end! Sugar-phosphate backbone

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11 3.3.4 Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds. A-T; G-C –A, G are purinesbigger –T, C are pyrimidinessmaller Consistent width of dbl helix Opposite directions (anti-parallel)

12 3.3.5 Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA TOK: story of elucidation of DNA structure (collaboration; Watson and Cricks discovery of 3D structure dependent on Franklins data…shared without her knowledge or consent!!!)

13 3.4 DNA Replication

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16 3.4.1 Explain DNA replication in terms of unwinding the double helix and separation of the strands by helicase, followed by formation of the new complementary strands by DNA polymerase. Interphase, before cell division –Chromatin Helicase (100s of base pairs per sec!) –Moves base pair at a time, breaks H bonds –Each strand is now a template DNA polymerases –Covalent bonds b/w new strand ntides –Free nucleotides (nucleoside triphosphates)

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19 3.4.2Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA. Double stranded, complementary Each becomes a template Complementary Identical daughter strands Accuracy for passing on information –Gene expression –Fatal mistakes

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21 3.4.3State that DNA replication is semi- conservative. Neither is completely new –(Semi-conservative) Meselson & Stahl expts Heavy & light isotopes of N

22 3.5 Transcription & Translation

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25 3.5.1Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. **similarities & differences!! 5 are listed (not 10!): DNARNA 5-C sugar Deoxyribose sugarRibose sugar Each nucleotide has 1 of 4 nitrogenous bases Bases are C, G, A, TBases are C, G, A, U Double-strandedSingle-stranded

26 Whys the nucleus called the control center? Protein synthesis Some are enzymes Effects biochemistry of cell...carbs, lipids, etc.

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33 3.5.2Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase. Gene region on DNA is unzipped RNA polymerase moves along template DNA strand (1) & complementary RNA ntides pair U instead of T Compl copy of ONE GENE of the chromosome

34 3.5.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases. 3 mRNA bases Codes for ONE amino acid codon Sequence for polypeptide

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36 1. During the process of translation which of the following statements describes the relationship between nucleic acids? A.Anticodons on mRNA bind to complementary codons on DNA. B.Anticodons on tRNA bind to complementary codons on mRNA. C.Bases on DNA bind to complementary bases on mRNA. D.A single strand of mRNA is produced from the DNA in the nucleus. 2. Define the term degenerate as it relates to the genetic code. (1 mark) more than one codon / base triplet codes for an amino acid1 Happy THURSDAY!!! March 4 th ! Test Monday, Articles & Review Tomorrow!

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38 3.5.4Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation. Include the roles of messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), codons, anticodons, ribosomes and amino acids.

39 RNA mRNA: –complementary copy of a gene, codes for one polypeptide rRNA: –ribosomal (ribosome = rRNA + ribosomal protein) tRNA: –transfers ONE of the 20 AA to ribosome for polypeptide formation –anticodon complementary to codon, determines which AA attaches to tRNA

40 3.5.4Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation. mRNA leaves through nuclear pore, goes to 1 st 2 codons

41 3.5.4Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation. tRNA anticodons match up, bring amino acids in sequence

42 3.5.4Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation. 2 nd tRNA brings next one, condensation rxn cov bond creates peptide bond

43 3.5.4Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation. tRNA breaks bond w/amino acid, floats away & reloads Ribosome moves down mRNA,...until stop codon: all dissociate

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55 3.5.5Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide. Originally (1940s) 1 gene 1 enzyme all proteins many proteins are multiple polypeptides, each translated by a separate gene would invariably code for one polypeptide, but many exceptions have been discovered. ACTUALLY...one mRNA can be modified in different ways to produce different polypeptides... TOK: The way in which theories are modified as related evidence accumulates could be discussed, and whether contrary evidence should cause a theory to be discarded immediately if there are exceptions to it. Where a theory is suddenly and totally abandoned, to be replaced by a different theory, this is known as a paradigm shift.

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