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DNARNA - Double stranded molecule - Contains thymine - Contains deoxyribose sugar - Found only in nucleus - Single stranded molecule - Contains uracil.

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Presentation on theme: "DNARNA - Double stranded molecule - Contains thymine - Contains deoxyribose sugar - Found only in nucleus - Single stranded molecule - Contains uracil."— Presentation transcript:

1 DNARNA - Double stranded molecule - Contains thymine - Contains deoxyribose sugar - Found only in nucleus - Single stranded molecule - Contains uracil - Contains ribose sugar - Found in nucleus and cytoplasm - Made of nucleotides - Contain adenine, guanine, and cytosine

2 Nucleotides DNA: Deoxyribose RNA: Ribose DNA: G, C, A, or T RNA: G, C, A, or U DNA = Double stranded Instructions for making proteins RNA = Single stranded WORKERS for making proteins

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4 Interphase G1 = Growth S = DNA Replication – Helicase breaks H bonds between DNA strands – DNA polymerase uses original strands as a pattern – Base Pairing: G = C A = T – Result = 2 identical molecules of DNA each with 1 original strand and 1 new strand – Needed for mitosis (each cell needs copy of DNA) G2 = Preparation for cell division (M phase)

5 Cell Cycle

6 M Phase Mitosis = division of the nucleus – Prophase = Nucleolus disappears ; Nuclear membrane dissolves; Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; Spindle forms – Metaphase = Chromosomes attach to the spindle & are pulled into the MIDDLE (equator) – Anaphase = Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell – Telophase = Spindle breaks down; Chromosomes (sister chromatids) unwind into Chromatin; Nuclear membrane reforms; Nucleolus reappears Cytokinesis = division of same time as Telophase Result = 2 identical daughter cells

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8 Protein Synthesis Transcription (1 st step = in nucleus) – The enzyme RNA polymerase copies the gene (DNA) into the complimentary sequence of mRNA – Base Pairing: G = C A = U – mRNA leaves the nucleus Translation (2 nd step = in ribosome) – mRNA goes to the Ribosome & is decoded by tRNA using the codons on mRNA & the anticodons on tRNA – 3 nitrogen bases = 1 codon = 1 amino acid – tRNA delivers (transfers) the correct amino acids to the ribosome – rRNA (ribosome) forms peptide bonds between the amino acids to build the polypeptide (protein)

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