Presentation on theme: "Bell Work GCCTTA What would be the DNA compliment of the section of DNA above? a. CGGAAT b. CGGUUT c. ATTCCG d. TAAGGC."— Presentation transcript:
1 Bell WorkGCCTTAWhat would be the DNA compliment of the section of DNA above?a. CGGAATb. CGGUUTc. ATTCCGd. TAAGGC
2 Question 1. Which of the following is NOT true about DNA replication? It occurs during interphaseThe new DNA is identical to the original DNAIt is semi-conservativeThe sequence of the nucleotides is changed
3 Question 2. DNA contains genetic information on its ___. Hydrogen bondsDeoxyribose sugarNucleotide sequencePhosphate bonds
4 Question3. Which of the following is true about the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes?Chromosomes and proteins make up genes and genes make up DNAChromosomes are made up of DNA and protein. Genes are sections of DNA on a chromosomeGenes and proteins make up DNA. The sequence of genes and proteins make up a chromosome.Proteins make up chromosomes and DNA. DNA and chromosomes make up genes.
5 Notes Proteins control all the processes of the cell DNA controls the production of every proteinTo be made correctly, 3 processes must occur1. DNA replication2. transcription3. tanslationIf the nucleotide sequence changes, then the information that it carries will change
6 Notes DNA Made of nucleotides 1953: Crick and Watson 3 parts of a nucleotideSugar (deoxyribose)phosphate groupnitrogen bases (complimentary pairs: A-T, C-G)1953: Crick and WatsonDiscovered that DNA was made of two nucleotide chains joined at the nitrogen bases by hydrogen bonds.Discovered that it was a twisted helix
7 NotesThe more closely the DNA sequences are between two organisms, the more similar they are.
8 DNA Chromosomes are made of proteins and DNA Genes are the sections of DNA that provide information about specific traits.
9 Notes:Replication, Transcription and Translation allow an organism to express its inherited genes.
10 DNA Replication DNA replication The process by which DNA copies itself Takes place during interphaseAn exact replica of the DNA is made
11 Step 1 of DNA Replication An enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases causing the DNA to “unzip”, exposing the nitrogen bases
12 Step 2 of DNA Replication Nucleotides that are floating around in the cell (free nucleotides) pair with the exposed nitrogen basesThis type of replication is called “semi-conservative” since the new molecules of DNA will have one side of the original DNA and the other side will be formed new from free nucleotides.
13 Step 3 of DNA Replication The sugar and phosphate parts of the free nucleotides bond together to form a complete strand that will make up the new side of the DNA moleculeThe original strand bonds to the new strand
14 Step 4 of DNA Replication The result is two molecules of DNA that are identical since the base pairs have to join their complimenting nitrogen base
15 Transcription and Translation RNAConsist of the sugar ribose, instead of the deoxyribose sugar of DNAPairs A to U instead of A to TSingle strand instead of double strand3 types: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA
16 Why RNA is neededProteins are made on the ribosomes in the cell, but the DNA (instructions) are located in the nucleusInformation from the DNA must be sent to the ribosomes…..TRANSCRIPTION
17 Transcription Transcription A process that copies the instructions in the DNA onto a strand of mRNA
18 Notes: Steps in Transcription DNA unzips like it did in replicationFree RNA nucleotides pair with the nitrogen basesAdenine (A) pairs with uracil (U)Cytosine (C) still pairs with guanine (G)
19 Notes: Steps in Transcription Base pairing finishesmRNA breaks away from the DNA strand2 DNA strands zip back togetherThe mRNA goes out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm of the cell
20 Notes: mRNACodonsNitrogen bases in the mRNA also forms groups of three bases called codonsThe code for an amino acid64 different combinations of 3 bases are possible.These combinations make up the codes for the twenty different amino acidsCombinations of the 20 amino acids make up proteins in all organisms
21 Notes: Translation Translation The process that builds proteins Takes place after the ribosomes attach to the mRNAThe mRNA attaches to the rRNA and “reads” the sequence 3 bases at a time
22 Notes Transfer RNA (tRNA) is used to carry amino acids to the ribosome Has a three nucleotide sequence called an anticodonAnticodons form base pairs with the codons of the mRNA
23 Notes: TranslationtRNA carries a specific amino acid that was determined by the anticodon sequenceA bond forms between the two amino acids.The tRNA is released
24 Notes: Translation continued Process repeats itself over and over and a chain of amino acids is builtWhen the rRNA reads a special stop codon, translation stops and the chain is released into the cytoplasmThe polypeptide may then be used in cellular processes OR it may bond with other polypeptides to form proteins