23.2.1 Carbon Makes Organic Molecules Why Carbon?1. Carbon is the second most abundant element in living organisms.Carbon can share four electrons, therefore it can bond to four additional atoms.Carbon establishes covalent bonds (stable, high energy bonds)Carbon molecules have strength, flexibility, and great versatility to chemically react with other atoms and molecules.Any molecule which contain carbon is defined as organic.There are few exceptions:Oxides of carbon (CO, CO2) andHydrogencarbonates HCO3¯
3MacromoleculesMacromolecules are constituted by hydrocarbon backbones, which mainly provide structural stability, and by one or several functional groups.Functional groups are involved in many and diverse chemical reactions,establishing bonds with other atoms and molecules.
53.2.3/4 Examples of Monosaccharides and Function Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrate.They provide the building blocks for larger carbohydrate molecules.They also act as a respiratory substrate, providing cells with an energy source.Glucose is the main energy source for most living cells. It is one of the carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis and forms the building blocks of many carbohydrates.Fructose is a very sweet sugar. It is the main component of flower nectar and the sugar found in the fruits.Galactose is found in milk. It combines with glucose to form the disaccharide milk sugar molecule lactose
73.2.3 Examples of Disaccharides A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides through a condensation reaction.The hydroxyl group of one sugar and a hydroxyl of another sugar can join together, splitting out water to form a glycosidic bond:R-OH + HO-R' R-O-R' + H2O
83.2.3/4 Examples of Disaccharides and Function Disaccharides are relatively small molecules.They are water-solubes and taste sweet.Disaccharides are more suitable for transport and storage than monossacharides.Sucrose is stored in sugar beet and sugar cane. It is the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in the phloem tubes of plants.OHHLactose123456Sucrose
93.2.3 Examples of Polysaccharides The majority of sugars found in nature exist in the form of polysaccharides.Large chains of sugar unitsPlants store glucose as starch.The major constituent of plant cell walls, Cellulose, it consists of long linear chains of glucose with b(1 4) linkages.
103.2.3 Polysaccharides in animals: Glycogen Glycogen, the glucose storage polymer in animals, is similar in structure to starch, but glycogen has a(16) branches.The highly branched structure permits rapid glucose release from glycogen stores, e.g., in muscle during exercise.
113.2.5 Lipids structureLipids are organic molecules insoluble in water.They constitute the main reservoir of stored energy.The three main categories of lipids are:Fats (fatty acids and triglycerides),PhospholipidsSteroidsFats also make cell membranes and coatings (i.e. fruit coats)The basic structure of fats is a hydrocarbon backbone with a carboxyl group attached
123.2.5 Lipids structure: Fatty acids • A fatty acid molecule:Hydrocarbon chain = HydrophobicCarboxylic acid group =HydrophilicAmphipathicTypes of fatty acids:A fatty acid molecule has two distinct regions:a long, not very reactive, hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain,and a carboxylic acid group, extremely reactive and hydrophilic• Molecules such as fatty acids — with two distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions — are termed amphipathic.Saturated: single C-C bondUnsaturated: Double C=C bond
133.2.5 Lipids structure: Triglycerides Fatty acids are very efficient sites of energy storageThey are stored in cytoplasm of many cells as Triglycerides:3 fatty acid chainsbonded to a glycerol molecule.+ H2O• Fatty acids are very efficientsites of energy storage; theyare stored in the cytoplasm ofmany cells in the form ofdroplets of triacylglycerolmolecules — compoundsmade of three fatty acid chainsbonded to a glycerol molecule.• When a carboxylic acid and analcohol react, a water moleculeis removed, and an esterlinkage is formed• Triglycerides make “the fat” ofour bodies. In animals, theyare stored as droplets in fatcells or adipocytes.
143.2.5 Lipids structure: Phospholipids Phospholipids are similar to triglycerides but one of the fatty acids molecules is replaced by a phosphate group (PO4³¯).The lipid part = hydrophobicThe phosphate part = hydrophilic
153.2.5 Protein structure: peptide bond • Amino acids are joined together when a condensation reaction removes a hydroxyl group from the carboxyl end of one amino acid and a hydrogen from the amino group of another amino acid• The resulting covalent bond is called a peptide bond (C-N)
183.2.7 Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage 1. Long time energy storage2. Lipids contain twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrates3. Lipids are insoluble in water – do not cause problems with osmosis cell.1. Short time energy storage because are more easily digested so the energy stored can be released more rapidly2. Soluble in water – easier to transport to and from the store.