Presentation on theme: "Almost all of the molecules that make up your body are polymers, chains of subunits. Each type of macromolecule is a polymer composed of a different type."— Presentation transcript:
Almost all of the molecules that make up your body are polymers, chains of subunits. Each type of macromolecule is a polymer composed of a different type of subunit called a monomer
The subunits of the macromolecules are covalently-bonded. The covalent bonds between the subunits are always formed by a type of reaction called Dehydration Synthesis (making something while losing water).
During dehydration synthesis, a water molecule is lost, electrons are rearranged, and a new bond is formed between the subunits.
The structure of each type of macromolecules is what determines how the molecules function in our bodies
Organic Molecules Carbon atoms are present Carbon forms four covalent bonds with other atoms This allows for a wide variety of organic molecules. Organic molecules are found in both living and non-living things.
Non-living Organic Molecules Hydrocarbons: The simplest organic compound Contain only carbon and hydrogen Carbon atoms bond easily to each other forming numerous types of hydrocarbons molecules
Organic Molecules of Living Things Called macromolecules Consist of: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids
Organic Molecules of Living Things In addition to hydrogen and carbon they contain atoms of other elements They tend to be large and complex
*Their shape depends on the arrangement of the carbon atoms that make up the backbone *Their shape defines their properties and function in living organisms.
Together, the carbon skeleton and the attached functional groups determine the properties of an organic molecule.
A carbohydrate is an organic compound that is composed of atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1 carbon atom, 2 hydrogen atoms, and 1 oxygen atom.
Some carbohydrates are relatively small molecules, the most important to us is glucose which has 6 carbon atoms. These simple sugars are called monosaccharides
The primary function of carbohydrates is for short-term energy storage (sugars are for Energy). A secondary function is intermediate-term energy storage (as in starch for plants and glycogen for animals).
Other carbohydrates are involved as structural components in cells, such as cellulose which is found in the cell walls of plants.
Isomers Molecules with the same molecular structure but different structural formulas Example: Glucose and Fructose
Two common Monosaccharides, (single sugars) Glucose and Fructose Two Common Monosaccharides
Hooking two monosaccharides together forms a more complex sugar. Compounds such as sucrose are called Disaccharides (two sugars). Both monosaccharides and disaccharides are soluble in water.
Larger, more complex carbohydrates are formed by linking shorter units together to form long or very long sugar chains called Polysaccharides. Because of their size, these are often times not soluble in water.
Many biologically important compounds such as starches and cellulose are Polysaccharides.
Large polymers of sugars are called Carbohydrates.. The term Complex Carbohydrate, or sometimes even just Carbohydrate refers to long chains of sugars. Three common types of complex carb's are: Starch, Cellulose, and Glycogen.
Lipids Each type of lipid has a slightly different structure, but they all possess a large number of C - H bonds which makes them a primarily non-polar group of molecules. All the C-H bonds also makes them very Energy- rich.
Function for Lipids is that of Energy storage. Lipids contain a lot of calories in a small space. Since Lipids are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water, they are stored in special ways in your body's cells. Lipids can also function as structural components in the cell. Phospholipids are the major building blocks of cell membranes.
Lipids are also used as hormones that play roles in regulating our Physiology (metabolism). Most lipids are composed of some sort of fatty acid arrangement.
Fatty Acids: The lipid building blocks: The common building block for most of the different types of lipids is the fatty acid. Fatty acids are composed of a chain of methylene groups with a Carboxyl functional group at one end.
The methyl chain is the fatty part, the Carboxyl, the acid. The fatty acid chains are usually between 10 and 20 Carbon atoms long. The fatty "tail" is non-polar (Hydrophobic) while the Carboxyl "head" is a little polar (Hydrophillic).
Fatty acids can be saturated (meaning they have as many hydrogens bonded to their carbons as possible) or unsaturated (with one or more double bonds connecting their carbons, hence fewer hydrogens).
A fat is a solid at room temperature, while an oil is a liquid under the same conditions. The fatty acids in oils are mostly unsaturated, while those in fats are mostly saturated.
Triglycerides: Energy Storage, Three fatty acids bonded to Glycerol. Triglycerides are Energy-storage molecules. They are formed by connecting three fatty acids to Glycerol. contain a lot of Energy (aka Calories). Fat has a lot of calories.
The flabby stuff most of us have on certain parts of our bodies is cells filled with triglycerides. In trigylcerides, a fatty acid is joined to each of the three Carbons of Glycerol by Dehydration Synthesis to form a molecule which stores a lot of calories in a small space.