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Unit IV: Political Culture and Participation

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1 Unit IV: Political Culture and Participation

2 Overview of the Unit A. What are the politically relevant cleavages and what effects do they have on political systems? B. What are the interrelationships between institutions, political practices, and cleavages? C. Theoretically and in practice what is the relationship between civil society and power?

3 D. What are the forms and efficacy of political action?
E. What are the political roles of media? F. What are the operations and effects of the electoral and party systems?

4 I. Political Culture Political Culture: collective political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions government is based on Consensual political culture: accepts both the legitimacy of regime and solutions to major problems Conflictual political culture: divided on legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems **Political culture is in flux and can change from consensual to conflictual

5 II. Comparing Citizen and State Relationships
Attitudes and beliefs of citizens and political efficacy Political socialization Types of political participation Voting behavior Factors that influence political beliefs and behaviors Level of transparency

6 III. Great Britain Describe the evolution of political culture in Great Britain.

7 Identity and Political Culture in England
Social Cleavages: Multi-national identities Social class distinctions Ethnic minorities

8 Multinational Identities
England: majority of population, disproportionate political power, challenge of integrating nationalities Wales: Plaid Cymru, pride in their language and feelings of being exploited by their neighbors Scotland: devolution and Scottish Parliament, strong national identity Northern Ireland: Catholics feeling persecuted by Protestants

9 Social Class Distinctions
Difficult to distinguish on income alone, but in terms of solidarity “Public schools”: prep for public life in military, civil service, or politics Middle class attends private schools Only 65% of British 17 year-olds are still in school, the lowest level of any industrialized democracy Portal to elite class: Oxford or Cambridge (Oxbridge)

10 Ethnic Minorities: 7.1% of non-European origin (2001)
Indian: 23% of non-European population Pakistani: 16% Afro-Caribbean: 12.2% Black African: 10.5% *Most immigrants are under 25


12 Muslim Minorities: Distinct minority/majority cleavages
Social class differences of Muslims: British Muslim children of illiterate workers, have not felt integrated into British culture Pakistani Muslims Opposition to the Iraqi war: hostility toward Muslims Lack of integration of minorities: feelings of being treated as 2nd class citizens

13 Political Participation:
Voting Behavior: 70% participation Social Class Regional factors

14 Political Parties 1. Labour 2. Lib. Dems 3.Conservative

15 Political Parties Other Parties Plaid Cymru (Wales)
Today: 15 of 60 seats in the Welsh Assembly Scottish National Party (Sctoland) Today: 47 of 129 seats in Scottish Assembly Sinn Fein (political arm of the IRA) Democratic Unionist Party (NI Prot. Clergy) Two far right groups: British National Party and UK Independence Party

16 Elections: Plurality Election System
Winner-take-all Single-member plurality or first-past-the-post System often exaggerates the size of the victory 2005 Labour Party won 35.3% of votes and 356 out of 646 seats in Parliament Elections for Regional Governments: a. Proportional representation to meet needs of multiple parties

17 European Parliament Elections:
Directly elected to parliament institutions Every 5 years, 72 members from UK Campaign Financing Shorter and less expensive than the US Both parties were under investigation for not fully disclosing loans

18 Role of the Media British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
Used to work to be respectful of government officials Government strictly regulates the BBC (No ads may be sold to politicians, parties, or political causes)

19 IV. Russia Citizens, Society, and the State Cleavages: NATIONALITY:
Russian: 79.8% Tatar: 3.8% Ukrainian: 2% Baskir: 1.2% Chuvash: 1.1% Other: 12.1%

20 Religion: Russian Orthodox: 15-20% Muslim: 10-15% (20 million people)
Moscow: laborers The Caucasus Bashkortostan and Tatarstan Other Christian: 2%

21 Rich in Russia Rural/Urban
73% of Russians live in cities in western Russia Economic divide is wide

22 Chechnya’s Hidden War

23 Political Participation:
Voting: Soviet rule: close to 100% in non-competitive elections Since 1991: Duma elections: 2003 (56%), 2007 (64%) Presidential elctions: 2004 (65%), 2007 (70%)

24 Civil Society: Participation outside of voting is limited, civic group participation is low, but newspaper readership is high Government limits on groups, especially those critical of the government Russian Youth Groups: Nashi, Youth Guard, and Locals

25 Political Parties Parties developed overnight and tend to revolve around a group of leaders making parties weak and fluid United Russia: Merger of Fatherland All-Russia and Unity Party Party of Putin (formed in 2001) Communist Party of the Russian Federation: Support has decreased since 2000 Emphasize centralized planning and nationalism

26 Liberal Democrats Fair Russia: Misnamed party, Vladimir Zhirinovsky
Extremist nationalist party Fair Russia: a. Merger of Motherland People’s Patriotic Union with Party of Pensioners and the Party of Life

27 Reformist Parties Yabloko (Apple) Union of Right Forces
Strongest pro-democracy party 3rd in 2000 presidential election (5.8%) 2007 with election rule changes Yabloko lost all seats in the Duma Union of Right Forces “Right” as in understanding of the truth Desire for greater free market and privatization of industry

28 Elections Referendum: president can call national referenda by popular vote on important issues Duma Elections: 450 seats, until /2 FPTP, 1/2 PR 2007, all single member districts eliminated Must get 7% (raised from 5%) to get any seats Goal was reduce the number of parties and make policymaking more efficient

29 Presidential Elections
Two round model, but only if there is not a clear majority Putin in 2004 (71% of the vote), 2nd place only received 14%

30 V. China Citizens, Society, and the State Cleavages Ethnic Urban-Rural

31 Ethnic: Han Chinese (90%)
55 officially recognized minority groups (10%) Autonomous areas: Tibet and Xinjiang comprise of 60% of China’s territory Most minorities live in border regions Autonomous regions have some self-government and cultural rights


33 Tibet Separate ethnic identity, never recognized Chinese authority
Tensions over the Dalai Lama Global protest movements and the Olympic torch

34 Uyghurs Muslims of Turkish descent living in Xinjiang
Post 9-11 world Chinese are very concerned with Muslim dissidents July 2009 Riots a. Result of Uyghur dissatisfaction with the central Chinese gov’t. handling of death of two Uyghurs

35 Uyghurs in the News

36 Linguistic Diversity Mandarin Shanghainese (Cantonese)
2006 China rules required use of Mandarin in schools, media, or addresses to the public

37 Urban-Rural Cleavages
Most economic growth has occurred in the cities Two China’s Divide is economic and social Wen Jiabao (2006) New Socialist Countryside program to lift rural economy


39 “Chinese authorities estimate that 22 million youngsters in China have been left at home while their parents migrate to cities to find work. The numbers of the so-called liushou ertong, or "left behind children," are growing steadily in China's vast rural areas. They represent a personal toll of China's explosive growth.” -Loretta Chao, Wall Street Journal

40 “Many of the left-behind children stay with one parent
“Many of the left-behind children stay with one parent. But over 30 percent of the children of migrants are left with grandparents or with other relatives with little or no supervision, according to a 2004 survey by the China National Institute for Educational Research.The problem is tearing apart families and creating a generation of children who grow up with limited contact with their parents and little adult supervision. Teachers in provinces such as Anhui say it is common to visit or call a student's home only to find there is no adult in charge.”


42 Political Participation
Party and Participation 58 million participants (8% of the population) CCP Youth League (70 million) Capitalists have been allowed party membership since 2001

43 Factionalism in the Communist Party
Conservatives: power of the party and central government has eroded too much Reformers/Open door: capitalist infusion, more open trade, US granted “most favored trading”, members include Wen Jiabao and Hu Jintao Liberals: out of power since 1989, support greater political liberties and democratic movements

44 Non-Communist Parties
CCP allows for the existence of 8 “democratic” parties Each party has a focus and base to draw from (intellectuals, businesses) Total membership: 500,000 Do not contest the CCP, serve as loyal non-opposition

45 4. Corruption Guanxi and economic boom have brought rampant corruption
“The fight against corruption is a grave political struggle vital to the very existence of the party and the state…If corruption cannot be punished effectively, our Party will lose the support and confidence of the People.” --Jiang Zemin, 1997 4. Corruption Guanxi and economic boom have brought rampant corruption 2004 CCP Central Committee publishing policy paper against corruption 2007 Tainted food scandal

46 5. Interest Groups Not allowed to influence the political process unless under party-state authority Party allows for mass organizations where people may express their point of view with strict limits (exp. All-China Federation of Trade Unions and All-China’s Women’s Federation) Danwei: social units based on people’s workplace Operate under state corporatism

47 6. Growth of Civil Society
Private organizations focusing on social problems (environment, AIDS, legal reform) People still feel there is a lack of transparency within government 1990s brought NGOs about 30,000 registered groups today Falun Gong

48 Media Xinhua (government press agency)
Chinese Central Television (CCTV) The People’s Daily (newspaper of CC of the CCP) State-run agencies hold the largest part of the market but economic liberalization has allowed for wider diversity of content and increase in investigative reporting

49 VII. Mexico Citizens, Society, and the State Cleavages
Urban vs. rural: PRI Legacy: patron-client system favored illiterate peasants in rural areas Shift to 75% of population living in urban areas Urban voters are less inclined to support PRI

50 Social Class: Mestizo vs. Amerindian
Poorest 10% of pop. earned 1.6% of income, wealthiest 10% earned 35.6% Poor have higher infant mortality, lower life expectancy (more likely to support PRI) Growing middle class, even in poorer sections of the country (more likely to support PAN) Mestizo vs. Amerindian Only about 10% speak an indigenous language, but 30% identify as Amerindian Amerindians are more likely to live in poverty


52 North v. South North: South: Dry and mountainous
Trade with U.S. creates stronger economy Better educated, middle and upper class South: Subtropical Less educated, support PRI except in Chiapas state


54 Protests 1968: Student protests in Mexico City resulted in troops killing 200 people 1. Following president worked to integrate citizens 1994: State of Chiapas Sponsored Zapatista uprising Vicente Fox worked to incorporate Zapatistas into the political system Rebellion has not formally been called off but government provides electricity and water to villages


56 Media Under PRI vs. Today
Multiple domestic newspapers and access to international newspapers (CNN, BBC) Press is free to criticize the government

57 Political Participation
Political Parties: PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) Founded by elites and characterized by: Corporatist State: party has ultimate authority but interest groups woven into party structure Patron-client system Small town or rural, less educated, older, poorer

58 PAN (National Action Party)
Founded in 1939 Platform: Regional autonomy Free market economy Clean and fair elections Good rapport with the Catholic Church Support for private and religious education PRI’s opposition to the right North, middle-class professional , religious (and non-religious) :)

59 PRD (Democratic Revolutionary Party)
PRI opposition to the left Run on social justice and populism Party has been criticized for lack of organization Limited support in legislative branch Young, politically active, some education, rural or urban

60 Elections Directly elect : president, Chamber of Deputies, Senate, state and local Election of 2006: Tie between PAN and PRD Election tribunal ordered 9% of precincts to be recounted PAN candidate, Obrador claimed election was “stolen” Mid-term Election of 2009: PAN and PRD lost seats to PRI (doubled their seats) Has made policy making very difficult

61 Electoral System President: FPTP (plurality) Congress: Dual system
Senate: 3 from each state, 2 by FPTP, 1 by PR Chamber of Deputies: 300 seats FPTP, 200 seats PR

62 VIII. Nigeria Citizens, Society, and State Challenges:
Poverty: 60% below poverty line Like Mexico, large gap in wealth distribution Health issues: 1 out of 11 HIV/AIDS sufferers live in Nigeria Literacy: Below world average and a gap between males (75.7%) and females (60.6%)


64 Freedom House

65 Cleavages Ethnicity: 250-400 ethnic groups Religion:
Muslim (50%) Christian (40%): Colonial preferential treatment by British Native religions (10%) North (Muslim) vs. South (Christian) Urban vs. Rural Social class

66 Public Opinion and Political Participation
Subjects rather than active participants Patron-Clientelism (Prebendalism) Extremely personalized system, public offices treated as fiefdoms Most favors exchanged through political elite Corruption and informal influence ESTABLISHED FORM OF POLITICAL PARTICIPATION

67 Civil Society (realm outside of government influence)
Centripetal (unity) and Centrifugal (division) Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) Worked to help Ogoni in the Niger Delta National Union of Petroleum and Gas Workers Formal associations for journalism, legal, medical, etc.

68 Attitudes toward government
Voting Behavior Voting in national elections since 1959 Patterns difficult to track Political parties are numerous and fluid Results appear to be fraudulent Attitudes toward government Low levels of trust Transparency Index

69 Protests and Social Movements
Chevron Texaco siege by Ijaw women (2002) Protests focused on foreign-based oil companies in the Niger Delta Nigeria is the 8th largest oil exporter

70 Political Parties (2007 election)
People’s Democratic Party (PDP):Party of Obasanjo and Yar’Auda a. Originated in the North, deliberately ran Obasanjo a Christian Yoruba from the south All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) Action Congress (AC)

71 Elections and Electoral Procedures
National elections: Presidential Elections: if an outright majority is not received a 2nd ballot election may take place, also must receive 25% of votes in 2/3 of the states Legislative Elections: House: 539 (FPTP) Senate: 109 (3 from each 36 states)

72 IX. Iran Citizens, Society, and the State Cleavages: Religion:
Shia Muslims (90%) Sunni Muslim (about 10%) Jews, Christians, Zoroastrian, and Baha’i(1%) Ethnicity: Persian (51%): speak Farsi Azeri (24%): do not speak Persian, but are Shiite Gilaki and Mazandarani (8%) Kurds (7%) Arabi (3%)

73 Social Class Peasants and middle class: support the regime, benefited from the gov’t. social programs Middle and upper class: secularized, have struggled economically, opposition to the regime

74 3. Reformers vs. conservatives:
Conservatives: keep the regime Reformers: do not want to do away with the basics of the Islamic state but desire more secularization and democracy Pragmatic conservatives vs. radical clerics: Pragmatic conservatives: favor liberal economic policies, strong ties to middle class merchants and rural landowners, private party and economic inequality are supported by Islam Radical clerics: young and militant clerics, endorse wealth redistribution to benefit the poor

75 Political Participation: Civil liberties written into the 1979 Constitution but have not lived up to their promise Protests and Demonstrations: The last decade has experienced multiple student protests against the regime More than half of people alive today in Iran were not alive during the 1979 Islamic Revolution Women and the Political System: Equality with difference Not well represented in the Majles

76 Political Parties: Constitution allowed for parties but not allowed until Formed around personalities rather than issues. The Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran (Ahmadinejad) Iranian Reform Movement: combination of reform parties, candidates blocked from running (Mousavi) Etemad-e Melli Party: (Karroubi) 3rd in election of 2005, 4th in election of 2009, “pragmatic reformist”

77 Elections: Elected institutions: Assembly of Religious Experts, Majles, President, FPTP (could be two rounds) Majles 2004 and 2008: many candidates were banned from running President 2005: Rafsanjani and Ahmadinejad President 2009: protests, vote did not match opinion polls

78 Death in Tehran: PBS FRontline

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