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Linkage Institutions Political Parties, Civil Society, Interest Groups, Electoral Systems & Elections.

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Presentation on theme: "Linkage Institutions Political Parties, Civil Society, Interest Groups, Electoral Systems & Elections."— Presentation transcript:

1 Linkage Institutions Political Parties, Civil Society, Interest Groups, Electoral Systems & Elections

2 Almond’s Description Types of Interest Groups Anomic: spontaneous groups spurred by a specific event. Often short lived, and potentially violent. Nonassociational Groups: rarely well organized. Differ from anomic in that it is often a cultural trait that brings them together. Institutional Groups: formal groups that have other social or political function. Usually highly organized and driven by specific interests. Examples: political parties and corporations. Associational Groups: Groups that are specifically formed to represent one group. Trade unions and manufacture associations.

3 Linkage Institutions Linkage Institutions – groups that connect the government to its citizens. Political Parties Political Parties Civil Society Civil Society Interest Groups Interest Groups Electoral Systems & Elections Electoral Systems & Elections

4 Political Parties Party System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.

5 Political Parties Party System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them. 1.) One Party System many Communist nations have one-part systems; Mexico during the 20 th century Communist Party of China (CPC) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

6 Political Parties Party System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them. 2.) Two Party System rare; 15 countries world wide, including the United States Republican & Democratic Parties in the United States

7 Political Parties Party System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them. 3.) Multi-Party System most European countries; strong Parliamentary systems. ** Style of Election System is a major determinate in the type of party system that develops. Stay tuned…** Political Parties in British Parliament

8 Civil Society vs. Interest Groups Civil Society– voluntary organizations outside of the government that help people define & advance their own interests. – May represent social class, religious, or ethnic interests. apolitical – May be apolitical tyranny of the majority – Help to check the power of the state and prevent the tyranny of the majority – the tendency to allow majority rule to neglect the rights and liberties of minorities. nongovernmental organizations – In a global society, civil society can be nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) American Red Cross

9 Civil Society A society in which people are involved in social and political interactions free of state control or regulation. – Community groups – Voluntary associations – Religious groups Interaction through media Internet a dominant force Importance of group involvement? Representations of interactions within societies – Interest groups – Political parties

10 Civil Society vs. Interest Groups Interest Groups – organizations of like-minded people whose goal is to influence and shape public policy.

11 Types of Interest Groups How much autonomy/independence from the government? – Transmission Belts – system where interest groups convey the message of the party elites. Ex.) In China, only government-endorsed groups may exist – Interest Group Pluralism – completely autonomous interest groups, who select their own leaders & raise their own funds. (US/Britain) – Corporatism – system with one group representing each interest sector, state approved and protected. State Corporatism – state determined Neocorporatism – interest groups dominate the state.

12 Political Parties vs. Interest Groups Political Parties Represent political points of view of various people Support a broad range of policies Influence government through the election process Parties run candidates for public office Interest Groups Represent political points of view of various people Support one or a few related policies Support candidates, but do not run their own

13 Electoral Systems & Elections Electoral System – the rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in a legislature.

14 Electoral Systems (1) Single-Member District Plurality Voting System (SMPD) - candidates compete for a single representative’s seat; winner is determined by who receives the most votes. Also called First-Past-the-Post or Winner-take-all System Ex.) United States and Britain – Criticisms: Not necessarily ‘representative’ of the voters – Duverger’s Law – Duverger’s Law – a plurality rule election system tends to favor a two-party system. Parties (also called ‘catch-all’) develop ‘umbrellas’ to embrace a wide variety of voters. Candidate A wins w/ 25 votes However 75 votes were cast for other candidates – no representation

15 Electoral Systems (2) Multi-Member Proportional Representation Voting System (a.k.a. Party-list Proportional Representation) o More than one legislative seat is contested in each district o Voters cast their ballots for a party rather than a candidate o The percentage of the votes a party receives determines how many seats they gain in the legislature. Ex.) Italy and South Africa

16 Electoral Systems (3) Mixed Systems – combines plurality and proportional representations. o Ex.) Mexico – Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) o 300 of 500 seats are elected through winner-take-all system from single member districts o 200 of 500 seats are selected by proportional representation

17 Types of Elections 1.) Election of Public Officials Presidential System o Ex.) Presidential System – President is directly elected by the people to this position Parliamentary System o Ex.) Parliamentary System – Prime Minister becomes head of government because he is the leader of the party with the most representatives in Parliament.

18 Types of Elections Referendum 2.) Referendum – a national ballot, called by the government on a policy issues which allows the public to make direct decisions about the policy itself. o Ex.) The Russian Constitution was put up for a referendum vote in o Ex.) In the U.S. we don’t have referendum votes on a national level, however it is done at a state/local level.

19 Types of Elections 3.) Initiative – a vote on a policy that is initiated by the people. o Ex.) Switzerland – allowed according to their constitution

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