2Almond’s Description Types of Interest Groups Anomic: spontaneous groups spurred by a specific event. Often short lived, and potentially violent.Nonassociational Groups: rarely well organized. Differ from anomic in that it is often a cultural trait that brings them together.Institutional Groups: formal groups that have other social or political function. Usually highly organized and driven by specific interests. Examples: political parties and corporations.Associational Groups: Groups that are specifically formed to represent one group. Trade unions and manufacture associations.
3Linkage InstitutionsLinkage Institutions – groups that connect the government to its citizens.Political PartiesCivil SocietyInterest GroupsElectoral Systems & Elections
4Political PartiesParty System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.
5Political PartiesParty System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.1.) One Party Systemmany Communist nations have one-part systems; Mexico during the 20th centuryCommunist Party of China (CPC)Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
6Republican & Democratic Parties in the United States Political PartiesParty System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.2.) Two Party Systemrare; 15 countries world wide, including the United StatesRepublican & Democratic Parties in the United States
7system that develops. Stay tuned…** Political PartiesParty System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.3.) Multi-Party Systemmost European countries; strong Parliamentary systems.** Style of Election System is a major determinate in the type of partysystem that develops. Stay tuned…**Political Parties in British Parliament
8Civil Society vs. Interest Groups Civil Society– voluntary organizations outside of the government that help people define & advance their own interests.May represent social class, religious, or ethnic interests.May be apoliticalHelp to check the power of the state and prevent the tyranny of the majority – the tendency to allow majority rule to neglect the rights and liberties of minorities.In a global society, civil society can be nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)American Red Cross
9Civil SocietyA society in which people are involved in social and political interactions free of state control or regulation.Community groupsVoluntary associationsReligious groupsInteraction through mediaInternet a dominant forceImportance of group involvement?Representations of interactions within societiesInterest groupsPolitical parties
10Civil Society vs. Interest Groups Interest Groups – organizations of like-minded people whose goal is to influence and shape public policy.
11Types of Interest Groups How much autonomy/independence from the government?Transmission Belts – system where interest groups convey the message of the party elites.Ex.) In China, only government-endorsed groups may existInterest Group Pluralism – completely autonomous interest groups, who select their own leaders & raise their own funds. (US/Britain)Corporatism – system with one group representing each interest sector, state approved and protected.State Corporatism – state determinedNeocorporatism – interest groups dominate the state.
12Political Parties vs. Interest Groups Represent political points of view of various peopleSupport a broad range of policiesInfluence government through the election processParties run candidates for public officeRepresent political points of view of various peopleSupport one or a few related policiesSupport candidates, but do not run their own
13Electoral Systems & Elections Electoral System – the rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in a legislature.
14Candidate A wins w/ 25 votes Electoral Systems(1) Single-Member District Plurality Voting System (SMPD) - candidates compete for a single representative’s seat; winner is determined by who receives the most votes.Also called First-Past-the-Post or Winner-take-all SystemEx.) United States and BritainCriticisms: Not necessarily ‘representative’ of the votersDuverger’s Law – a plurality rule election system tends to favor a two-party system. Parties (also called ‘catch-all’) develop ‘umbrellas’ to embrace a wide variety of voters.Candidate A wins w/ 25 votesHowever 75 votes were cast for other candidates – no representation
15Electoral Systems(2) Multi-Member Proportional Representation Voting System (a.k.a. Party-list Proportional Representation)More than one legislative seat is contested in each districtVoters cast their ballots for a party rather than a candidateThe percentage of the votes a party receives determines how many seats they gain in the legislature.Ex.) Italy and South Africa
16Electoral Systems(3) Mixed Systems – combines plurality and proportional representations.Ex.) Mexico – Chamber of Deputies (Lower House)300 of 500 seats are elected through winner-take-all system from single member districts200 of 500 seats are selected by proportional representation
17Types of Elections 1.) Election of Public Officials Ex.) Presidential System – President is directly elected by the people to this positionEx.) Parliamentary System – Prime Minister becomes head of government because he is the leader of the party with the most representatives in Parliament.
18Types of Elections2.) Referendum – a national ballot, called by the government on a policy issues which allows the public to make direct decisions about the policy itself.Ex.) The Russian Constitution was put up for a referendum vote in 1993.Ex.) In the U.S. we don’t have referendum votes on a national level, however it is done at a state/local level.
19Types of Elections3.) Initiative – a vote on a policy that is initiated by the people.Ex.) Switzerland – allowed according to their constitution