2 Almond’s Description Types of Interest Groups Anomic: spontaneous groups spurred by a specific event. Often short lived, and potentially violent.Nonassociational Groups: rarely well organized. Differ from anomic in that it is often a cultural trait that brings them together.Institutional Groups: formal groups that have other social or political function. Usually highly organized and driven by specific interests. Examples: political parties and corporations.Associational Groups: Groups that are specifically formed to represent one group. Trade unions and manufacture associations.
3 Linkage InstitutionsLinkage Institutions – groups that connect the government to its citizens.Political PartiesCivil SocietyInterest GroupsElectoral Systems & Elections
4 Political PartiesParty System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.
5 Political PartiesParty System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.1.) One Party Systemmany Communist nations have one-part systems; Mexico during the 20th centuryCommunist Party of China (CPC)Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
6 Republican & Democratic Parties in the United States Political PartiesParty System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.2.) Two Party Systemrare; 15 countries world wide, including the United StatesRepublican & Democratic Parties in the United States
7 system that develops. Stay tuned…** Political PartiesParty System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.3.) Multi-Party Systemmost European countries; strong Parliamentary systems.** Style of Election System is a major determinate in the type of partysystem that develops. Stay tuned…**Political Parties in British Parliament
8 Civil Society vs. Interest Groups Civil Society– voluntary organizations outside of the government that help people define & advance their own interests.May represent social class, religious, or ethnic interests.May be apoliticalHelp to check the power of the state and prevent the tyranny of the majority – the tendency to allow majority rule to neglect the rights and liberties of minorities.In a global society, civil society can be nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)American Red Cross
9 Civil SocietyA society in which people are involved in social and political interactions free of state control or regulation.Community groupsVoluntary associationsReligious groupsInteraction through mediaInternet a dominant forceImportance of group involvement?Representations of interactions within societiesInterest groupsPolitical parties
10 Civil Society vs. Interest Groups Interest Groups – organizations of like-minded people whose goal is to influence and shape public policy.
11 Types of Interest Groups How much autonomy/independence from the government?Transmission Belts – system where interest groups convey the message of the party elites.Ex.) In China, only government-endorsed groups may existInterest Group Pluralism – completely autonomous interest groups, who select their own leaders & raise their own funds. (US/Britain)Corporatism – system with one group representing each interest sector, state approved and protected.State Corporatism – state determinedNeocorporatism – interest groups dominate the state.
12 Political Parties vs. Interest Groups Represent political points of view of various peopleSupport a broad range of policiesInfluence government through the election processParties run candidates for public officeRepresent political points of view of various peopleSupport one or a few related policiesSupport candidates, but do not run their own
13 Electoral Systems & Elections Electoral System – the rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in a legislature.
14 Candidate A wins w/ 25 votes Electoral Systems(1) Single-Member District Plurality Voting System (SMPD) - candidates compete for a single representative’s seat; winner is determined by who receives the most votes.Also called First-Past-the-Post or Winner-take-all SystemEx.) United States and BritainCriticisms: Not necessarily ‘representative’ of the votersDuverger’s Law – a plurality rule election system tends to favor a two-party system. Parties (also called ‘catch-all’) develop ‘umbrellas’ to embrace a wide variety of voters.Candidate A wins w/ 25 votesHowever 75 votes were cast for other candidates – no representation
15 Electoral Systems(2) Multi-Member Proportional Representation Voting System (a.k.a. Party-list Proportional Representation)More than one legislative seat is contested in each districtVoters cast their ballots for a party rather than a candidateThe percentage of the votes a party receives determines how many seats they gain in the legislature.Ex.) Italy and South Africa
16 Electoral Systems(3) Mixed Systems – combines plurality and proportional representations.Ex.) Mexico – Chamber of Deputies (Lower House)300 of 500 seats are elected through winner-take-all system from single member districts200 of 500 seats are selected by proportional representation
17 Types of Elections 1.) Election of Public Officials Ex.) Presidential System – President is directly elected by the people to this positionEx.) Parliamentary System – Prime Minister becomes head of government because he is the leader of the party with the most representatives in Parliament.
18 Types of Elections2.) Referendum – a national ballot, called by the government on a policy issues which allows the public to make direct decisions about the policy itself.Ex.) The Russian Constitution was put up for a referendum vote in 1993.Ex.) In the U.S. we don’t have referendum votes on a national level, however it is done at a state/local level.
19 Types of Elections3.) Initiative – a vote on a policy that is initiated by the people.Ex.) Switzerland – allowed according to their constitution