Presentation on theme: "Linkage Institutions Political Parties, Civil Society, Interest Groups, Electoral Systems & Elections."— Presentation transcript:
Linkage Institutions Political Parties, Civil Society, Interest Groups, Electoral Systems & Elections
Almond’s Description Types of Interest Groups Anomic: spontaneous groups spurred by a specific event. Often short lived, and potentially violent. Nonassociational Groups: rarely well organized. Differ from anomic in that it is often a cultural trait that brings them together. Institutional Groups: formal groups that have other social or political function. Usually highly organized and driven by specific interests. Examples: political parties and corporations. Associational Groups: Groups that are specifically formed to represent one group. Trade unions and manufacture associations.
Linkage Institutions Linkage Institutions – groups that connect the government to its citizens. Political Parties Political Parties Civil Society Civil Society Interest Groups Interest Groups Electoral Systems & Elections Electoral Systems & Elections
Political Parties Party System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them.
Political Parties Party System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them. 1.) One Party System many Communist nations have one-part systems; Mexico during the 20 th century Communist Party of China (CPC) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
Political Parties Party System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them. 2.) Two Party System rare; 15 countries world wide, including the United States Republican & Democratic Parties in the United States
Political Parties Party System– the array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them. 3.) Multi-Party System most European countries; strong Parliamentary systems. ** Style of Election System is a major determinate in the type of party system that develops. Stay tuned…** Political Parties in British Parliament
Civil Society vs. Interest Groups Civil Society– voluntary organizations outside of the government that help people define & advance their own interests. – May represent social class, religious, or ethnic interests. apolitical – May be apolitical tyranny of the majority – Help to check the power of the state and prevent the tyranny of the majority – the tendency to allow majority rule to neglect the rights and liberties of minorities. nongovernmental organizations – In a global society, civil society can be nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) American Red Cross
Civil Society vs. Interest Groups Interest Groups – organizations of like-minded people whose goal is to influence and shape public policy.
Types of Interest Groups: Almond How much autonomy/independence from the government? – Pluralist– voluntary groups that have a loose organization, and are separate from formal government function. (USA) – Democratic Corporatists Interest Groups– much more organized with compulsory membership, the line that separates this group from government function is vague, often represent one sector of production. (Socialist nations in Europe) – Controlled Interest Group System – Single membership for each social sector, membership is compulsory, and the groups are controlled by the government. (Communist Nations)
Types of Interest Groups How much autonomy/independence from the government? – Transmission Belts – system where interest groups convey the message of the party elites. Ex.) In China, only government-endorsed groups may exist – Interest Group Pluralism – completely autonomous interest groups, who select their own leaders & raise their own funds. – Corporatism – system with one group representing each interest sector, state approved and protected. State Corporatism – state determined Neocorporatism – interest groups dominate the state.
Political Parties vs. Interest Groups Political Parties Represent political points of view of various people Support a broad range of policies Influence government through the election process Parties run candidates for public office Interest Groups Represent political points of view of various people Support one or a few related policies Support candidates, but do not run their own
Electoral Systems & Elections Electoral System – the rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in a legislature.
Electoral Systems (1) Single-Member District Plurality Voting System (SMPD) - candidates compete for a single representative’s seat; winner is determined by who receives the most votes. Also called First-Past-the-Post or Winner-take-all System Ex.) United States and Britain – Criticisms: Not necessarily ‘representative’ of the voters – Duverger’s Law – Duverger’s Law – a plurality rule election system tends to favor a two-party system. Parties (also called ‘catch-all’) develop ‘umbrellas’ to embrace a wide variety of voters. Candidate A wins w/ 25 votes However 75 votes were cast for other candidates – no representation
Electoral Systems (2) Multi-Member Proportional Representation Voting System (a.k.a. Party-list Proportional Representation) o More than one legislative seat is contested in each district o Voters cast their ballots for a party rather than a candidate o The percentage of the votes a party receives determines how many seats they gain in the legislature. Ex.) Italy and South Africa
Electoral Systems (3) Mixed Systems – combines plurality and proportional representations. o Ex.) Mexico – Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) o 300 of 500 seats are elected through winner-take-all system from single member districts o 200 of 500 seats are selected by proportional representation
Types of Elections 1.) Election of Public Officials Presidential System o Ex.) Presidential System – President is directly elected by the people to this position Parliamentary System o Ex.) Parliamentary System – Prime Minister becomes head of government because he is the leader of the party with the most representatives in Parliament.
Types of Elections Referendum 2.) Referendum – a national ballot, called by the government on a policy issues which allows the public to make direct decisions about the policy itself. o Ex.) The Russian Constitution was put up for a referendum vote in 1993. o Ex.) In the U.S. we don’t have referendum votes on a national level, however it is done at a state/local level.
Types of Elections 3.) Initiative – a vote on a policy that is initiated by the people. o Ex.) Switzerland – allowed according to their constitution