2Dimension 1 Who or How Many Parties are Involved WWII was truly global in scopeMeaning it was a conflict that directly impacted all nations in the world
3Dimension 1 Axis Countries Allied Countries Germany Italy Japan FinlandHungaryRomaniaBulgariaCroatiaSlovakiaAllied CountriesUnited Kingdom (England, Great Britain)United States (America, USA)Soviet Union (USSR, Russia)FranceCanadaAustraliaChinaPolandGreeceNetherlandsBelgiumCzechoslovakiaLuxembourgNorwayYugoslavia
4Dimension #1 People /Allies Neville Chamberlain ( ), British primeminister ( )known for hisappeasement policyin the immediatepre-World War II period.
5Dimension #1 People /Allies Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill ( ), Great Britain's greatest 20th-century statesman,best known for his courageousleadership as prime ministerduring World War II.
6Dimension #1 People/Allies Dwight D. Eisenhower ( ), American military leader, whose great popularity as Allied supreme commander during World War II secured him election as the 34th president of the U.S. ( ).
7Dimension #1 People/Allies Douglas MacArthur ( ), American general, who commanded Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II, supervised the postwar occupation of Japan, and led UN forces during the Korean War.
8Dimension #1 People/Allies George Smith Patton ( ), American army officerEarly in 1944 he was given command of the Third Army.In the summer of 1944 the Third Army broke through the German defenses in the Normandy campaign in March 1945 it crossed the Rhine River into Germany
9Dimension #1 People/Allies Franklin Delano Roosevelt ( ), 32d president of the U.S. ( ); elected for an unprecedented four terms, he was one of the 20th century's most skillful political leaders.
10Dimension #1 People/Allies Josef Stalin( ), Soviet Communist leader, the longtime ruler who more than any other individual molded the features that characterized the Soviet regime and shaped the direction of post-World War II Europe;
11Dimension #1 People/Axis Adolf Hitler ( ), German dictator, chancellor ( ), founder and leader (führer) of German fascism (Nazism).
12Dimension #1 People/Axis Emperor Hirohito ( ), emperor of Japan ( ), who was the last ruler to uphold (during the first part of his reign) the Shinto idea of imperial divinity.
13Dimension #1 People/Axis Benito Mussolini ( ), premier-dictator of Italy ( ), the founder and leader (Il Duce) of Italian Fascism.
14Dimension #1 People/Axis Hideki Tojo ( ), Japanese leader during World War II. An extreme militarist and advocate of total war, he became army chief of staff in 1937, commanding the Japanese Kwantung army against the Chinese in Manchuria.
15DIMENSION # 2: What are the sources of conflict? What is it over? • Conflicts Over Resources (Human Resources; Things and Capital; NaturalResources; Land and Territory)o When people, groups, and nations are competing for the sameresourceso When there is a dispute over who has a right to certain resourceso When people, groups, or nations want to take someone else’sresources or prevent someone from getting needed resources• Conflicts Over Values (Beliefs, Choices and Perspectives, and Preferences)o When people, groups, and nations have relations with each other,but hold different deeply held beliefs about the role of anindividual, group or family within their culture, cultural practices,politics, and religiono Conflicts over “what is most important”• Conflicts Over Psychological Needs (Power and Control, EmotionalNeeds)o Conflicts related to an individual’s or group’s need for respect, love,affirmation, approval, friendship, and power over their own fateso Conflicts related to the need of individuals to belong and have theopportunity to develop and achieveo Conflicts that arise when psychological needs are not fulfilledo Conflicts between an individual and other people or institutionswhen obstacles prevent someone from having their needs met
16Conflicts Over Resources Japan in 1931 invades Manchuria in ChinaNationalist government wanted a steady source of natural resources for Japan, an island nation with little natural resourcesItaly invaded Ethiopia in 1935-wanted landed and had imperialist aspirationsGermany wanted to gain “living space” for all German Speaking peoples, invaded Austria and then looked to the rest of Eastern Europe
18Conflicts Over Psychological Needs Power and Control, Emotional Versailles Treaty- Caused Psychological damage to many nations in EuropeEurope was divided between those who gained from Versailles and those who lostPsychologically-Germany and Italy felt the need to rectify the harsh conditions of the treaty
19Winners of WWIThe Allies of WWI were tremendously fearful of another warAdopted a policy of appeasement – Neville Chamberlin of Great BritainDictators such as Mussolini, Hitler, and Franco of Spain challenged the will of the League of Nations and allies
20Summary of Long Term Causes Everyone has a different opinion about what caused the war, here are the most commonVersailles TreatyRise of Fascism, Nationalism, Totalitarianism, ExpansionismWeakness of the League of Nations, AppeasementEconomic DepressionAlliances
21DIMENSION #3: Relationships between/among conflicting parties. The type of relationship that exists between conflicting parties will often determine the intensity of the conflict and its outcome. Important questions to ask include:What kind of climate is present between conflicting parties? How can the climate change the outcome?Trusting or SuspiciousFriendly or HostileOpen or ResistantCalm or Emotionally TenseDo parties come to the conflict with equal power or a power imbalance?Does any one party control the resources and decision–making process?What is the degree of interdependence between the conflicting parties?(In other words, do the actions of one person or group seriously impactthe others involved in the conflict?)o How often do the parties see or interact with one another?o Is a positive relationship valued equally by both parties?o Does each party need the cooperation of the other to achieveimportant goals?How well do the parties know one another?o Does the relationship matter to both or one of them? How much?o Does it matter if conflicting parties come from different culturesand know little about the other?
22How Would You Answer Dimension #3 for each of the following countries? GermanyFranceBritainRussiaItalyJapanUSA
23DIMENSION #4: What is the history of the conflict? Usually the longer a conflict exists, the more intense and complex it becomes, and therefore, the more difficult to resolve. Yet, there is also a point when parties can become so “battle weary” that they finally see resolution as the best strategy. Factors that complicate a conflict:• The duration of the conflict.o How long has the conflict continued?o Are the original parties still actively involved in the conflict?• The frequency of the conflict.o How often has the conflict reemerged?o Are there periods when the conflict escalated to severe levels?o Did this conflict develop in stages?• The intensity of the conflict.o How life threatening is the conflict?o Is the conflict emotionally or ideologically charged?• The perception of the conflict by both those directly involved and those who witness it but do not feel directly affected by it.o Do people “see” the conflict as serious or irrelevant? (Conflicts can remain unresolved when there is little or no pressure to address them – when people from `inside’ or `outside’ the conflict don’t perceive it to be compelling enough to resolve. Conflicts are not always visible, or easily identifiable. In these situations, the conflict remains, even though it is hidden from view or ignored.The historical conflict between Israel and Palestine is a good example for discussing this dimension.
24DIMENSION # 5: The Process: How do we choose to deal with the conflict? In every conflict, all parties involved make choices to take some action theythink will help them get what they want and need. These choices may bespontaneous or calculated, constructive or destructive. Conflicts can develop instages and consequently may involve many different responses as the conflictproceeds. Some of those choices are:• Avoidance – deny, ignore, or back off the conflict• Diffuse the conflict – postpone, wait, gather data, or check it out• Engage in the conflict – methods might include:o Direct Force or Competitiono Accommodation – to adapt or adjusto Compromiseo Use Collaborative Problem-SolvingPractice Restorative Justice- valuing community continuity and well-being in the
25How did the Allies Response to Axis Aggression Change? Policy of AppeasementIsolationism for USIndirect Confrontation (Spain)Direct confrontation
26Dictators Challenge World Peace Japan invades Manchuria-wanted same colonial advantages as Western Nations had in AsiaItaly invades Ethiopia in 1935-revenge for Italy’s defeat in 1896Ethiopian King Halle Selassie asks League of Nations for help-League imposes sanctionHitler sends troops to the Rhineland bordering France
27Policy of AppeasementDeveloped by British Prime Minister Neville ChamberlinBritish and French did not want another warSaw Hitler as a way to counter the bigger threat of communism in USSRUS Congress passes a series of Neutrality Acts-forbidding the sale of weapons to nations at warRome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis-Agreed to fight communism and not interfere with each others ambitions
28Spanish Civil War 1920’s Spain is a monarchy 1931 a republic is formed with a constitutionLoyalists support republicDemocracies support loyalistsConservatives reject reforms of new governmentNationalists led by Francisco Franco led a revoltHitler/Mussolini support Nationalists
29German Aggression Continues Austria Annexed in what is called the Anschluss or union 1938Czech Crisis: Hitler demands the freedom of the Sudetenland- a region in western Czechoslovakia (3 million Germans)Munich Conference Sept Britsh and French give in to Hitler’s demand-Hitler said he would stopChamberlin declares he achieved “peace for our time”French Leader Edouard Daladier thought differently
30Churchill is RightBritish politician Winston Churchill said, ”they had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war”August 1939 Hitler signs a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union. WHY?Did not want a 2 front warWanted to divide up PolandPact based on mutual need not friendship
31WWII Begins September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland On September 3, 1939-Britian and France declare war on Germany
32Early Wins for the Axis Powers Hitler’s famous Blitzkreig “lightening war” a huge success in PolandStalin’s forces attack Poland from the eastPhony War begins-French wait for German invasion-supported by British troopsThey wait behind the Maginot Line-a supposedly impregnable defenseHitler attacks Norway and Denmark in April 1940
33Axis Advances German troops pour into France by May Trap British at Dunkirk-British send all available boats to rescue British soldiers and bring them across the channelItaly declares war on FranceJune 22, 1940 France falls and signs surrender documentsA puppet government is set up in Vichy
34War in the East/AfricaSeptember 1940 Mussolini’s forces attack Libya and push into EgyptOct Italy invades Greece-German troops come to Italy’s aidSoon Greece and Yugoslavia were added to Axis victoriesBulgaria and Hungary join the Axis powersNew technology like sonar and radar aid in the victories
35Battle of BritainBritain stands alone to fight the Nazi’s after France falls in 1940August 12, 1940 Germany begins the London Blitz-under constant bombardment Germany failed to break the will of the British-when not in bomb shelters they went about their daily businessBombing continued until June 1941 but failed to break the morale of the British-Operation Sea Lion was a failure
36Operation BarbarossaJune 1941 Hitler attempts to conquer the Soviet Union-wanted resources3 million Germans catch Stalin off guard and march onto Soviet soilBy fall Nazi’s were ready to take Moscow and LeningradOops winter comes-Nazi’s freeze to deathRussians suffer after the 2 ½ year siege of Leningrad
37Where is the USA? At the beginning of the war US was neutral Roosevelt found ways around the neutrality act by passing the Lend-Lease Act “sell or lend war materials to any country the President deems vital to the defense of the US”Churchill and Roosevelt issue the Atlantic Charter- Goals of war-destruction of Nazi tyranny, right of people to choose their government
38Japan AttacksGrowing tensions: US bans sale of goods to Japan in an effort to stop its aggression in AsiaTalks failed to alleviate tensions-growing nationalism and militarism in JapanJapanese attack Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941-to weaken US before it enters the warUS Declares war on Japan 12/8/41 on 12/11/41 Congress declares war on Germany and ItalyJapanese have many early victories in the Pacific
39Hitler’s Racism Hitler’s racially motivated policies Perpetrated the Holocaust “SHOAH”= “meaning to be consumed by fire”Policy of purification of the Aryan raceHitler’s Racism
40Allies Start Making Ground Strategy of Big Three-finish war in Europe then turn toward AsiaDistrust amongst the allies-Churchill, Stalin and RooseveltStalin wanted help in the East-British and Americans did not answer this call until 1944
41Concept of Total WarThe entire economy was directed to the war efforts-factories converted to war making materials and necessitiesGovernment in Executive Order 9066 authorized the internment of Japanese American citizens on the West Coast1988 President George H.W. Bush formally apologizes to Japanese Americans and Congress authorizes reparations
42Turning Points in WWIIEl Alamein- British General Montgomery stops German General Rommel’s (desert fox) march through North AfricaVictory in North Africa gives allies a stepping stone to ItalyBritish and American forces land in Sicily in July 1943Italians overthrow Mussolini sign and armistice
44Turning Points Continued… Red Army (Soviet Union) resists the GermansBattle for Stalingrad one of the costliest of the war-Russians hold off Germans and once again the winter takes its tollAfter this victory Russians counterattack and rid the Soviet Union of German troops push west towards Germany
45Turning Points D-Day Invasion of France: June 6, 1944 “D-Day” On August 25th the Allied forces entered ParisGermany retreated –France was freeAllies turned attention to conquering Germany
46War In the PacificJapanese overwhelmed European colonies in the PacificControlled PhilippinesBattle of Midway in May 1942 began a turning point in the war in the PacificIsland hopping campaigns-take islands working way towards Mainland Japan1944 MacArthur begins to retake Philippines
48Defeat of the NazisDecember 1944 Allies head towards Germany via BelgiumGermany launches a counter-attack at the Battle of the BulgeBattle delayed Allied advance, but Hitler was losing support in GermanyConstant Allied bombings of GermanyFire-bombing of Dresden Feb 1945 killed 135,000
50VE-Day! Hitler committed suicide in April 1945 Germany surrendered on May 7th 1945 and May 8th is known as VE-Day (Victory in Europe)
51Defeat of JapanGermany defeated all resources go towards defeating JapanMilitary and political planners were gearing up for an invasion of mainland JapanSimultaneously they were working on the A BombHiroshima August 9, 1945-Nagasaki August 11, 1945Japan surrenders on September 2nd, 1945
52Aftermath of WarCosts of war: 75 million people died, 38 million in Europe22 million Soviets diedHorrors of the Holocaust revealed to rest of the worldAxis leaders tried for “crimes against humanity”These trials are known as the Nuremberg trials
53Allied Occupation Allies occupy Germany and Japan Strengthen democracy in these two nations and ensure peace
54Establishment of the UN League of Nations was weak and ineffective after WWIUnited Nations would play a greater role in world affairsEach nation had one vote in the General AssemblySecurity Council given greater power-5 permanent member (US, USSR, China, Britain and France)
55So much for the Alliance USA and USSR brought about victory in EuropeEmerge from war as superpowersWartime alliance disintegrates because of conflicting ideologies
56Stalin’s Goals in Eastern Europe Spread communismCreate a buffer of friendly nations to prevent another German invasionBy 1948 Stalin had installed pro-Soviet governments in Eastern EuropeChurchill-”an iron curtain has fallen in Europe”Europe was divided between eastern and western blocks
58Truman DoctrineMarch 12, 1947 President Harry S. Truman outlines a new policy to Congress.“I believe that it must be the policy of the US to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”—TrumanAmerica would help those willing to stand up to Soviet expansionismPolicy of Containment by George Kennan
59Marshall Plan US provides aid packages to Europe to help it rebuild Poverty and economic despair are ripe grounds for communist expansion
60Works CitedEllis & Esler. World History: Connections to Today. Prentice Hall: New Jersey, 2005.Educators for Social Responsibility. 5 Dimensions of Conflict, March 12, 2008.Avalon Project. March 29, 2008.BBC. March 31, 2008.