Presentation on theme: "World War II. Dimension 1 Who or How Many Parties are Involved WWII was truly global in scope Meaning it was a conflict that directly impacted all nations."— Presentation transcript:
Dimension 1 Who or How Many Parties are Involved WWII was truly global in scope Meaning it was a conflict that directly impacted all nations in the world
Dimension 1 Axis Countries Germany Italy Japan Finland Hungary Romania Bulgaria Croatia Slovakia Allied Countries United Kingdom (England, Great Britain) United States (America, USA) Soviet Union (USSR, Russia) France Canada Australia China Poland Greece Netherlands Belgium Czechoslovakia Luxembourg Norway Yugoslavia
Dimension #1 People /Allies Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940), British prime minister (1937-40) known for his appeasement policy in the immediate pre-World War II period.
Dimension #1 People /Allies Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965), Great Britain's greatest 20th- century statesman, best known for his courageous leadership as prime minister during World War II.
Dimension #1 People/Allies Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890 - 1969), American military leader, whose great popularity as Allied supreme commander during World War II secured him election as the 34th president of the U.S. (1953 - 61).
Dimension #1 People/Allies Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964), American general, who commanded Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II, supervised the postwar occupation of Japan, and led UN forces during the Korean War.
Dimension #1 People/Allies George Smith Patton (1885-1945), American army officer Early in 1944 he was given command of the Third Army. In the summer of 1944 the Third Army broke through the German defenses in the Normandy campaign in March 1945 it crossed the Rhine River into Germany
Dimension #1 People/Allies Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945), 32d president of the U.S. (1933-45); elected for an unprecedented four terms, he was one of the 20th century's most skillful political leaders.
Dimension #1 People/Allies Josef Stalin(1879- 1953), Soviet Communist leader, the longtime ruler who more than any other individual molded the features that characterized the Soviet regime and shaped the direction of post-World War II Europe;
Dimension #1 People/Axis Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), German dictator, chancellor (1933-1945), founder and leader (führer) of German fascism (Nazism).
Dimension #1 People/Axis Emperor Hirohito (1901-89), emperor of Japan (1926-89), who was the last ruler to uphold (during the first part of his reign) the Shinto idea of imperial divinity.
Dimension #1 People/Axis Benito Mussolini (1883-1945), premier- dictator of Italy (1922- 43), the founder and leader (Il Duce) of Italian Fascism.
Dimension #1 People/Axis Hideki Tojo (1884- 1948), Japanese leader during World War II. An extreme militarist and advocate of total war, he became army chief of staff in 1937, commanding the Japanese Kwantung army against the Chinese in Manchuria.
DIMENSION # 2: What are the sources of conflict? What is it over? What are the sources of conflict? What is it over? Conflicts Over Resources (Human Resources; Things and Capital; Natural Resources; Land and Territory) o When people, groups, and nations are competing for the same resources o When there is a dispute over who has a right to certain resources o When people, groups, or nations want to take someone else’s resources or prevent someone from getting needed resources Conflicts Over Values (Beliefs, Choices and Perspectives, and Preferences) o When people, groups, and nations have relations with each other, but hold different deeply held beliefs about the role of an individual, group or family within their culture, cultural practices, politics, and religion o Conflicts over “what is most important” Conflicts Over Psychological Needs (Power and Control, Emotional Needs) o Conflicts related to an individual’s or group’s need for respect, love, affirmation, approval, friendship, and power over their own fates o Conflicts related to the need of individuals to belong and have the opportunity to develop and achieve o Conflicts that arise when psychological needs are not fulfilled o Conflicts between an individual and other people or institutions when obstacles prevent someone from having their needs met
Conflicts Over Resources Japan in 1931 invades Manchuria in China Nationalist government wanted a steady source of natural resources for Japan, an island nation with little natural resources Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935-wanted landed and had imperialist aspirations Germany wanted to gain “living space” for all German Speaking peoples, invaded Austria and then looked to the rest of Eastern Europe
Conflicts Over Psychological Needs Power and Control, Emotional Versailles Treaty- Caused Psychological damage to many nations in Europe Europe was divided between those who gained from Versailles and those who lost Psychologically-Germany and Italy felt the need to rectify the harsh conditions of the treaty
Winners of WWI The Allies of WWI were tremendously fearful of another war Adopted a policy of appeasement – Neville Chamberlin of Great Britain Dictators such as Mussolini, Hitler, and Franco of Spain challenged the will of the League of Nations and allies
Summary of Long Term Causes Everyone has a different opinion about what caused the war, here are the most common Versailles Treaty Rise of Fascism, Nationalism, Totalitarianism, Expansionism Weakness of the League of Nations, Appeasement Economic Depression Alliances
DIMENSION #3: Relationships between/among conflicting parties. The type of relationship that exists between conflicting parties will often determine the intensity of the conflict and its outcome. Important questions to ask include: What kind of climate is present between conflicting parties? How can the climate change the outcome? Trusting or Suspicious Friendly or Hostile Open or Resistant Calm or Emotionally Tense Do parties come to the conflict with equal power or a power imbalance? Does any one party control the resources and decision–making process? What is the degree of interdependence between the conflicting parties? (In other words, do the actions of one person or group seriously impact the others involved in the conflict?) o How often do the parties see or interact with one another? o Is a positive relationship valued equally by both parties? o Does each party need the cooperation of the other to achieve important goals? How well do the parties know one another? o Does the relationship matter to both or one of them? How much? o Does it matter if conflicting parties come from different cultures and know little about the other?
How Would You Answer Dimension #3 for each of the following countries? Germany France Britain Russia Italy Japan USA
DIMENSION #4: What is the history of the conflict? Usually the longer a conflict exists, the more intense and complex it becomes, and therefore, the more difficult to resolve. Yet, there is also a point when parties can become so “battle weary” that they finally see resolution as the best strategy. Factors that complicate a conflict: The duration of the conflict. o How long has the conflict continued? o Are the original parties still actively involved in the conflict? The frequency of the conflict. o How often has the conflict reemerged? o Are there periods when the conflict escalated to severe levels? o Did this conflict develop in stages? The intensity of the conflict. o How life threatening is the conflict? o Is the conflict emotionally or ideologically charged? The perception of the conflict by both those directly involved and those who witness it but do not feel directly affected by it. o Do people “see” the conflict as serious or irrelevant? (Conflicts can remain unresolved when there is little or no pressure to address them – when people from `inside’ or `outside’ the conflict don’t perceive it to be compelling enough to resolve. Conflicts are not always visible, or easily identifiable. In these situations, the conflict remains, even though it is hidden from view or ignored. The historical conflict between Israel and Palestine is a good example for discussing this dimension.
DIMENSION # 5: The Process: How do we choose to deal with the conflict? In every conflict, all parties involved make choices to take some action they think will help them get what they want and need. These choices may be spontaneous or calculated, constructive or destructive. Conflicts can develop in stages and consequently may involve many different responses as the conflict proceeds. Some of those choices are: Avoidance – deny, ignore, or back off the conflict Diffuse the conflict – postpone, wait, gather data, or check it out Engage in the conflict – methods might include: o Direct Force or Competition o Accommodation – to adapt or adjust o Compromise o Use Collaborative Problem-Solving Practice Restorative Justice- valuing community continuity and well-being in the
How did the Allies Response to Axis Aggression Change? Policy of Appeasement Isolationism for US Indirect Confrontation (Spain) Direct confrontation
Dictators Challenge World Peace Japan invades Manchuria-wanted same colonial advantages as Western Nations had in Asia Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935-revenge for Italy’s defeat in 1896 Ethiopian King Halle Selassie asks League of Nations for help-League imposes sanction Hitler sends troops to the Rhineland bordering France
Policy of Appeasement Developed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlin British and French did not want another war Saw Hitler as a way to counter the bigger threat of communism in USSR US Congress passes a series of Neutrality Acts- forbidding the sale of weapons to nations at war Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis-Agreed to fight communism and not interfere with each others ambitions
Spanish Civil War 1920’s Spain is a monarchy 1931 a republic is formed with a constitution Loyalists support republic Democracies support loyalists Conservatives reject reforms of new government Nationalists led by Francisco Franco led a revolt Hitler/Mussolini support Nationalists
German Aggression Continues Austria Annexed in what is called the Anschluss or union 1938 Czech Crisis: Hitler demands the freedom of the Sudetenland- a region in western Czechoslovakia (3 million Germans) Munich Conference Sept. 1938-Britsh and French give in to Hitler’s demand-Hitler said he would stop Chamberlin declares he achieved “peace for our time” French Leader Edouard Daladier thought differently
Churchill is Right British politician Winston Churchill said, ”they had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war” August 1939 Hitler signs a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union. WHY? Did not want a 2 front war Wanted to divide up Poland Pact based on mutual need not friendship
WWII Begins September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland On September 3, 1939-Britian and France declare war on Germany
Early Wins for the Axis Powers Hitler’s famous Blitzkreig “lightening war” a huge success in Poland Stalin’s forces attack Poland from the east Phony War begins-French wait for German invasion-supported by British troops They wait behind the Maginot Line-a supposedly impregnable defense Hitler attacks Norway and Denmark in April 1940
Axis Advances German troops pour into France by May Trap British at Dunkirk-British send all available boats to rescue British soldiers and bring them across the channel Italy declares war on France June 22, 1940 France falls and signs surrender documents A puppet government is set up in Vichy
War in the East/Africa September 1940 Mussolini’s forces attack Libya and push into Egypt Oct. 1940 Italy invades Greece-German troops come to Italy’s aid Soon Greece and Yugoslavia were added to Axis victories Bulgaria and Hungary join the Axis powers New technology like sonar and radar aid in the victories
Battle of Britain Britain stands alone to fight the Nazi’s after France falls in 1940 August 12, 1940 Germany begins the London Blitz-under constant bombardment Germany failed to break the will of the British-when not in bomb shelters they went about their daily business Bombing continued until June 1941 but failed to break the morale of the British-Operation Sea Lion was a failure
Operation Barbarossa June 1941 Hitler attempts to conquer the Soviet Union-wanted resources 3 million Germans catch Stalin off guard and march onto Soviet soil By fall Nazi’s were ready to take Moscow and Leningrad Oops winter comes-Nazi’s freeze to death Russians suffer after the 2 ½ year siege of Leningrad
Where is the USA? At the beginning of the war US was neutral Roosevelt found ways around the neutrality act by passing the Lend-Lease Act “sell or lend war materials to any country the President deems vital to the defense of the US” Churchill and Roosevelt issue the Atlantic Charter- Goals of war-destruction of Nazi tyranny, right of people to choose their government
Japan Attacks Growing tensions: US bans sale of goods to Japan in an effort to stop its aggression in Asia Talks failed to alleviate tensions-growing nationalism and militarism in Japan Japanese attack Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941-to weaken US before it enters the war US Declares war on Japan 12/8/41 on 12/11/41 Congress declares war on Germany and Italy Japanese have many early victories in the Pacific
Hitler’s Racism Hitler’s racially motivated policies Perpetrated the Holocaust “SHOAH”= “meaning to be consumed by fire” Policy of purification of the Aryan race
Allies Start Making Ground Strategy of Big Three-finish war in Europe then turn toward Asia Distrust amongst the allies-Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt Stalin wanted help in the East-British and Americans did not answer this call until 1944
Concept of Total War The entire economy was directed to the war efforts-factories converted to war making materials and necessities Government in Executive Order 9066 authorized the internment of Japanese American citizens on the West Coast 1988 President George H.W. Bush formally apologizes to Japanese Americans and Congress authorizes reparations
Turning Points in WWII El Alamein- British General Montgomery stops German General Rommel’s (desert fox) march through North Africa Victory in North Africa gives allies a stepping stone to Italy British and American forces land in Sicily in July 1943 Italians overthrow Mussolini sign and armistice
Turning Points Continued… Red Army (Soviet Union) resists the Germans Battle for Stalingrad one of the costliest of the war-Russians hold off Germans and once again the winter takes its toll After this victory Russians counterattack and rid the Soviet Union of German troops push west towards Germany
Turning Points D-Day Invasion of France: June 6, 1944 “D-Day” On August 25 th the Allied forces entered Paris Germany retreated –France was free Allies turned attention to conquering Germany
War In the Pacific Japanese overwhelmed European colonies in the Pacific Controlled Philippines Battle of Midway in May 1942 began a turning point in the war in the Pacific Island hopping campaigns-take islands working way towards Mainland Japan 1944 MacArthur begins to retake Philippines
Defeat of the Nazis December 1944 Allies head towards Germany via Belgium Germany launches a counter-attack at the Battle of the Bulge Battle delayed Allied advance, but Hitler was losing support in Germany Constant Allied bombings of Germany Fire-bombing of Dresden Feb 1945 killed 135,000
VE-Day! Hitler committed suicide in April 1945 Germany surrendered on May 7 th 1945 and May 8 th is known as VE-Day (Victory in Europe)
Defeat of Japan Germany defeated all resources go towards defeating Japan Military and political planners were gearing up for an invasion of mainland Japan Simultaneously they were working on the A Bomb Hiroshima August 9, 1945-Nagasaki August 11, 1945 Japan surrenders on September 2 nd, 1945
Aftermath of War Costs of war: 75 million people died, 38 million in Europe 22 million Soviets died Horrors of the Holocaust revealed to rest of the world Axis leaders tried for “crimes against humanity” These trials are known as the Nuremberg trials
Allied Occupation Allies occupy Germany and Japan Strengthen democracy in these two nations and ensure peace
Establishment of the UN League of Nations was weak and ineffective after WWI United Nations would play a greater role in world affairs Each nation had one vote in the General Assembly Security Council given greater power-5 permanent member (US, USSR, China, Britain and France)
So much for the Alliance USA and USSR brought about victory in Europe Emerge from war as superpowers Wartime alliance disintegrates because of conflicting ideologies
Stalin’s Goals in Eastern Europe Spread communism Create a buffer of friendly nations to prevent another German invasion By 1948 Stalin had installed pro-Soviet governments in Eastern Europe Churchill-”an iron curtain has fallen in Europe” Europe was divided between eastern and western blocks
Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 President Harry S. Truman outlines a new policy to Congress. “I believe that it must be the policy of the US to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”—Truman America would help those willing to stand up to Soviet expansionism Policy of Containment by George Kennan
Marshall Plan US provides aid packages to Europe to help it rebuild Poverty and economic despair are ripe grounds for communist expansion
Works Cited Ellis & Esler. World History: Connections to Today. Prentice Hall: New Jersey, 2005. Educators for Social Responsibility. 5 Dimensions of Conflict, http://www.esrnational.org/ March 12, 2008. http://www.esrnational.org/ Avalon Project. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/20th.htm March 29, 2008. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/20th.htm March 29 BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/, March 31, 2008.http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/