Presentation on theme: "Origins of the UN Go back to WWI and the League of Nations President Wilson’s idea of “collective security” “Collective security is one type of coalition."— Presentation transcript:
Origins of the UN Go back to WWI and the League of Nations President Wilson’s idea of “collective security” “Collective security is one type of coalition building strategy in which a group of nations agree not to attack each other and to defend each other against an attack from one of the others, if such an attack is made. The principal is that "an attack against one, is an attack against all” (Dictionary of International Relations). The League of Nations, was an organization conceived during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security" (History of UN).League of Nations
Why the League of Nations Failed Did not have a military force of its own-members had to contribute Members not willing to impose economic or military sanctions Several big powers were not members- US, USSR, Germany, Japan Britain and France were reluctant to carry the burden- they just emerged from WWI
Origins Continued Delegates from China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States deliberated at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October In April- June 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco to draw up the United Nations Charter (History of the United Nations).United Nations Charter
UN Goals Founded on the concept of internationalism-which establishes the cooperation of nations to promote common aims Maintain international peace Promote justice and cooperation Goals are listed in the UN Charter or constitution
UN Structure The General Assembly: Main body of debate Consists of 193 member states Each state has one vote Majority of work is done in committees but Assembly votes to approve or reject committee suggestions No power to enforce decisions
Security Council Charged with promoting peace and security 5 Permanent members: France, US, Russia, Britain and China (winners in WWII) Have veto power 10 other member states join on a rotating basis
Economic and Social Council Spearheads the UN's economic, social, humanitarian and cultural activities. Works with various commissions that deal with human rights, population growth, technology and drugs Has 54 members who are elected by the General Assembly
International Court of Justice The court is the main judicial body of the UN and is tasked with settling legal disputes submitted to it by states Located in the Hague- only part of the UN where the primary location is NOT NYC Comprised of 15 justices elected for 9 year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council
Secretariat Secretariat does the day-to-day work of the UN Administers the programs and policies of the organization Research, translation and media relations Employs almost 9,000 peeps from 170 countries
Trusteeship Council Administered the UN's trust territories. It suspended its activities in 1994 when the last of the trust territories, Palau in the south Pacific, became independent. The council, made up of the five permanent Security Council members, agreed in 1994 to meet "as occasion required".
The Expanded UN System Independent agencies and the UN’s own programs extend the organizations reach The independent agencies include World Bank International Monetary Fund and t World Health Organization. They are linked to the UN by cooperation agreements.
UN Agencies The UN's own major agencies and programs include: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - UN's nuclear watchdog; based in Vienna. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) - try those suspected of war crimes in the former Yugoslavia; based in The Hague. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) - promotes child health, education, protection. UN Development Programme (UNDP) - committed to reducing poverty, developing infrastructure, promoting democratic governance.
UN Agencies continued… UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - aims to promote peace and development through education, science, culture and communication; based in Paris. UN Environment Programme (UNEP) - promotes environmental protection; based in Nairobi. UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) - safeguards rights and well-being of refugees; based in Geneva. UN Works and Relief Agency (UNWRA) - dedicated agency providing assistance solely to Palestinian refugees and their descendants. World Food Programme - "frontline agency in the fight against hunger"; based in Rome.
Works Cited “Background on the United Nations.” World Affairs Council Connecticut. n.d Web. 22 Feb “The United Nations an Introduction for Students.” United Nations Cyberschoolbus Web. 2 Mar Remy, Richard, John Patrick, David Saffel and Gary Clayton. Civics Today. Columbus: McGraw Hill, Print.