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Unit 7: Post WWII and Modern Georgia Ch. 24, 25, 26
The student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of Georgia from 1945 to – a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth. – b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia. – c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.
SS8H11 The student will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement. – a. Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor’s race and the end of the white primary, Brown v. Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag. – b. Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s; include such events as the founding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Sibley Commission, admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, Albany Movement, March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox. – c. Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.
SS8H12 The student will explain the importance of significant social, economic, and political developments in Georgia since – b. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president. – d. Evaluate the effect of the 1996 Olympic Games on Georgia. – e. Evaluate the importance of new immigrant communities to the growth and economy of Georgia.
SS8G2 The student will explain how the Interstate Highway System, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, and Georgia’s deepwater ports help drive the state’s economy. – a. Explain how the three transportation systems interact to provide domestic and international goods to the people of Georgia. – b. Explain how the three transportation systems interact to provide producers and service providers in Georgia with national and international markets. – c. Explain how the three transportation systems provide jobs for Georgians.
SS8E1 The student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods. SS8E2 The student will explain the benefits of free trade. – Describe how Georgians have engaged in trade in different historical time periods. SS8E3 The student will evaluate the influence of Georgia’s economic growth and development. – b. Explain how entrepreneurs take risks to develop new goods and services to start a business. – c. Evaluate the importance of entrepreneurs in Georgia who developed such enterprises as Coca-Cola, Delta Airlines, Georgia- Pacific, and Home Depot.
Population Shift in Georgia: p. 6 From RURAL to URBAN 1.Boll Weevil Epidemic – Destroyed GA’s cotton crop 2.Mass migration of African-Americans to northern cities 3.Movement of both blacks and whites to GA’s cities for factory jobs 4.FDR’s AAA New Deal Program – Paid farmers not to grow large amounts of crops 5.Advancement in Farming Technology – More machines (tractors, reapers, etc.) – Less workers needed on farms – Farming is still GA’s most important part of economy
Growth of Georgia: p. 7-8 “City Too Big To Hate” – Promoted by important business leaders even though segregation was still present ATL. Transportation Growth: – Railroads – Airports – Trucking Entertainment – Sports Teams Baseball Georgia became the 9 th most populated state in the U.S.
Growth of GA (cont) p.7-8 William B. Hartsfield – Mayor of ATL Very instrumental in helping during the Depression Convinced Robert Woodruff (owner of Coca-Cola) to cover the city’s 1936 December payroll – Active supporter in bringing air transportation to Georgia – Coined the phrase: “The city too busy to hate” – Never graduated from high school or college – Did pass BAR exam and opened up his own law practice – Longest serving mayor (over 20 years) – Supporter of Civil Rights in ATL Kept racial violence low – Atlanta airport is named in honor of Hartsfield
Growth of GA (cont) p.7-8 Ivan Allen, Jr. – Mayor after Hartsfield – Followed Hartsfield’s aggressive development policies – Big proponent of Civil Rights Movement Had all “colored” and “white” signs removed on his first day in office Worked side by side with MLK,Jr. to ease ATL’s transition into desegregation – Instrumental in the building of I-285 – Early advocate for MARTA (commuter rail line) – Responsible for 55 new building projects during his time in office – Responsible for convincing the city to invest in sports arenas which led Atlanta getting the Braves baseball team, Hawks Basketball team, and the Atlanta Falcons NFL team.
Growth of GA (cont) p.7-8 Sports and Economic Growth – Brought hundreds of jobs to the city – Millions of dollars in revenue – Set the stage for Atlanta to host the 1996 Olympic Games
Ellis Arnall: p.9 Nation’s youngest attorney general (he was 31) Beat out Talmadge in a run for governor – Mainly because Talmadge’s actions cost UGA its accreditation – Arnall restored UGA’s accreditation status Abolished the poll tax – Disenfranchised poor and minority voters Lowered the voting age Established teachers’ retirement system Arnall was credited with modernizing Georgia during his time in office in addition to making Georgia one of the most progressive states in the south in terms of racial relations This also led to his increasing unpopularity with many white Georgians who felt his views disparaged the south
Civil Rights: p Major Developments: – Jim Crow Laws ( ) Beginning of segregation and “separate but equal” – African Americans, particularly those returning from fighting in WWII, began to fight back against such laws that disenfranchised them from basic rights guaranteed them under the Constitution – President Truman ended segregation amongst the armed forces – NAACP fought in court and won – MLK used economic boycotts on a more local level to fight segregation
GA’s Role in the Civil Rights Movement p White primary ended in 1944 – King v. Chapman et al. – Primus E. King and several other African Americans sued the state over not being allowed to vote in the primary. – The court found in their favor and white primaries were abolished in Georgia. Herman Talmadge became governor, Georgians began to vote in staunch segregationists who backed the Jim Crow laws As a result of Brown v. BOE, Georgia changed its flag to incorporate the Confederate battle flag of 1956 African Americans would not gain full civil rights for another decade as a result
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Herman Talmadge ( ) – Son of Eugene Talmadge – Lobbied and received additional funding for education – Brought more industry to the state – UNYIELDING/STAUNCH SEGREGATIONALIST White primary was ended under Arnall’s term in office Talmadge promised to bring it back if elected – Elected to U.S. Senate Supported agricultural programs STILL OPPOSED CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION Charged with financial misconduct and lost the next election
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Benjamin Mays ( ) – Mentor to MLK, Jr. – Father of the Civil Rights Movement – Adopted many of Gandhi’s passive resistance strategies after meeting with him during a trip to India – Became president of Morehouse College Strengthened the school’s academic rigor Raised money for institutional programs
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Governor’s Race – “Three Governors’ Controversy” – Made Georgia a nationwide laughing stock – Resulted in a series of segregationist governors that ended many of Arnall’s progressive reforms. – Prior GA state laws stated that should a governor die in office, the General Assembly could pick the 2 nd or 3 rd runner up Supporters secretly wrote in Herman Talmadge’s name – New GA Constitution stated that the lieutenant governor (like the VP) would take the governor’s place should he not be able to finish his term. – As a result, Talmadge claimed the governor position claiming the General Assembly had voted him in. Melvin Thompson claimed the position since he was the lieutenant governor. Ellis Arnall (the outgoing governor) refused to vacate the position until the situation was resolved. – Talmadge and Arnall’s people got into physical altercations with each other over the dispute. – Talmadge had Arnall escorted out of the governor’s office and changed the locks. Arnall simply set up office in another location in the capital. – Ultimately, under the new Georgia constitution, Thompson was given the position. However, in the next election, Talmadge beat out Thompson for the governor’s seat.
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Impact of Brown v. BOE on Georgia – Occurred in schools must be Desegregated – Overturned a prior court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson – GA General Assembly did not agree, so they didn’t acknowledge the court’s decision – Because a later ruling used vague language, Ga was allowed to drag its feet in following the desegregation decree – Sibely Commission John Sibley went around the state asking citizens if they wanted GA to keep fighting the federal mandates of desegregation or close the schools. – 60% of Georgians said close the schools Sibley recommended limited desegregation University of GA was desegregated even though Governor Vandiver fought it Giving in, Vandiver convinced the GA General Assembly to follow Sibley’s recommendation that for small scale desegregation ATL was the first city with integrated schools
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ( ) – Work during the Civil Rights Movement earned him the Nobel Peace Prize and a national holiday in his honor – Promoted NON-VIOLENT action against injustices against African American citizens Specifically economic boycotts – Only African American to have a federal holiday in his honor as well as the only non-president to have a memorial at the National Mall in D.C. – His named was originally Michael, but his father changed it in honor of Martin Luther, a Protestant reformer from the 1500s.
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p State Flag – Georgia General Assembly changed the flag to include the Confederate battle flag that was used by hate groups such as the KKK. – In 2001, Roy Barnes changed the flag. – In 2003, Georgians voted to either keep the 2001 flag or the newly designed 2003 flag. – 60% of voters chose the current flag we fly today.
Georgia’s State Flags
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC- pronounced “snick”) – Major civil rights organizations made up of high school and college- aged students – Conducted sit-ins, freedom rides, etc. – The GA faction focused its energy on Albany and Atlanta – Albany Movement SNCC was at the forefront of the Albany Movement Most of the protestors were jailed peacefully, so there weren’t many protestors left. Black middle class didn’t initially support the protestors Although considered unsuccessful, the Albany Movement set the stage for much more successful protests later on Within a year of the Albany Movement, AA voting had increased and segregation statues were removed. – SNCC is credited with helping AAs get General Assembly seats to help in the reapportionment election
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Desegregation of UGA (1961) – Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter were denied admittance due to race. – They sued in federal court and won. – After arrive on campus, riots ensued involving local community members and KKK. – Both students were escorted back to ATL. – Court ruled a few days later that both must be allowed to return back to campus. – Both Holmes and Hunter graduated from UGA. – In 2001, UGA renamed their academic building after Hunter and Holmes. Hunter-Homes Academic Building
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p March on Washington (1963) – Over 250,000 civil rights activists marched on D.C. to promote civil rights legislation – MLK gave his “I Have a Dream” speech – Led to the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 AND the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Signed into law by LBJ Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Forbade discrimination on the basis of sex and race in hiring, promoting, and firing. Voting Rights Act of 1965 – Prohibited states from imposing any voting qualifications on voting or deny the right of any citizen of the U.S. to vote on account of race or color.
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Maynard Jackson ( ) – First AA mayor of a major southern city He was only 35 at the time – Served from and – Provided more contract work to black owned businesses – Expanded Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport – Worked to bring Olympics to ATL – Airport was renamed Hartsfield-Jackson AIA in his honor after his death in 2003.
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Lester Maddox ( ) – Last staunch segregationist governor in GA’s history – Ironically, Maddox appointed more AAs to government positions than all prior governors combined – Prior to entering politics, he was known for his restaurant “Pickrick” and his use of ax handles to forcefully remove AAs who tried to integrate his restaurant. He closed it rather than integrate. – Ran for president in 1976 against Jimmy Carter and lost. – Never apologized for this stance on segregation.
GA’s Role in Civil Rights p Andrew Young (1932-still alive) – Involved in the Civil Rights Movement His focus was voter registration drives Quit his job as a pastor to work full time for SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) Organized volunteers in non-violent protests and voter registration campaigns – Elected as GA’s first AA Congressman since Reconstruction – appointed ambassador to UN by Carter – Elected mayor of ATL in 1981 – Continues to sit on ATL committees
County Unit System and Reapportionment: p. 19 What: – Gave each county a certain # of votes during the primary based on the classification system: – Rural: given more votes bc mostly white – Town – Urban: fewest votes bc mostly AA and progressive whites Result – Urban areas had fewer votes – Rural areas had more votes – Allowed racist and discriminatory politicians to win office and keep getting re-elected. Change – As a result of several high profile court cases, the court mandated that “one man, one vote”. – States were required to redraw voting districts based on population and not geography.
Jimmy Carter: p. 20
Impact of 2-Party System on GA P. 21
1996 Olympic Games: p.22
Impact of Immigration on GA’s Growth and Economy: p.23
Impact of Transportation on GA’s Growth and Development: p.24 ATL became a major air and trucking hub after WWII – Was already a major railway hub