Presentation on theme: "What do each of these events have in common?. Desegregation of the University of Georgia SNCC Sibley Commission March on Washington Election of Maynard."— Presentation transcript:
Desegregation of the University of Georgia SNCC Sibley Commission March on Washington Election of Maynard Jackson Albany Movement Influential Events of the Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Act
Essential Question: How did national and political events influence the Civil Rights Movement, its outcome, and Georgia?
SS8H11a. Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor’s race and then end of the white primary, Brown v. Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag. SS8H11b. Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s; include such events as the founding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Sibley Commission, admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, Albany Movement, March on Washington Civil Rights Act, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox. SS8H11c. Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.
There are many important events and people of the Civil Rights Movement. We will focus on the most significant events and those which involved Georgia.
Brown v. Board of Education In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court declared segregated schools to be unconstitutional. The Georgia General Assembly was opposed to this ruling and declared the decision null (useless) and void (reject).
Brown v. Board of Education The Georgia General Assembly threatened to stop funding, and in some cases, allow the Governor to close any school that desegregated. A year after the Brown verdict, another court case ruled that schools must be desegregated with “all deliberate speed” which allowed southern states to take their time desegregating schools.
Educational Segregation in the U.S. prior to Brown
Select one of the following: Brown: A Landmark CaseBrown: A Landmark Case [6:56] Brown v. Board of Education in PBS’ The Supreme CourtBrown v. Board of Education in PBS’ The Supreme Court [4:53]
Brown v. Board of Education Turn to an elbow partner and discuss the following: What were the advantages and disadvantages of the Brown v. Board of Education ruling?
Sibley Commission After the Brown v. Board of Education supreme court decision, the Georgia General Assembly supported “massive resistance” to the desegregation of Georgia’s public schools. The Governor at the time was faced with the choice of following federal mandates (orders) or closing Georgia’s public schools. He wanted the input of voters to help make a decision.
Sibley Commission A committee was created to investigate Georgian’s opinions on the matter. John Sibley, a segregationist lawyer, led 10 hearings across the state to determine if Georgians felt that they should continue to resist the federal government or change laws to integrate schools.
Sibley Commission After the sessions, 60% of Georgians claimed that they would rather close the public schools than to integrate. Despite the findings, Sibley pushed for schools in Georgia to desegregate on a limited basis. The governor asked the General Assembly to accept Sibley’s recommendations after his failed attempts to close the University of Georgia.
Sibley Commission How did the findings from the Sibley Commission explain the public’s reaction to the Brown v. Board of Education ruling?
The Brown v. Board of Education verdict was in 1954, but it was not until 1961 that Atlanta became the first system to integrate. Ten years later, all school systems in the state were desegregated.
In 1959, Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter applied for college to the University of Georgia. Desegregation of the University of Georgia
They were not accepted by the university based on their race, but the university claimed it was due to lack of housing along with Holmes “evasiveness” during a campus interview. Desegregation of the University of Georgia The two students brought their case to federal court and after three weeks, the court ruled in their favor. They began classes in January 1961. http://dp.la/exhibitions/exhibits/show/activism/education-activism/university-desegregation
Soon after arriving on campus, a mob of students, locals, and members of the KKK started a riot on campus and threw bricks and rocks through Hunter’s dorm window. Desegregation of the University of Georgia The Georgia state patrol escorted them back to Atlanta, but a few days later the court ruled that they be allowed to return. Both graduated from the University. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QBo9Jrm2Y9g
Throughout the 1960s, civil rights groups worked to bring equality to Georgia. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) created by Martin Luther King, Jr. was one group. Another was the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
A national organization formed in North Carolina, it worked with the SCLC and focused on organizing peaceful non-violent protest. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) The group, made up of high school and college-aged students, became known for sit-ins, freedom rides, and the “freedom summer” in Mississippi.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) CNN: SNCC’s legacy: A civil rights history CNN: SNCC’s legacy: A civil rights history [5:56]
The Albany Movement involved several civil rights organizations like the NAACP and SNCC. Albany Movement The groups used methods such as mass demonstrations, sit-ins, and boycotts. Their goal was to end all types of segregation in the city of Albany, Ga. from buses and trains to libraries, hospitals, and juries.
By late 1961, more than 500 protestors had been arrested. Albany’s police chief was careful to keep the peace and avoid negative publicity. Albany Movement Martin Luther King, Jr. came to Albany to lend his support and bring national attention to the cause. He was jailed along with the protestors. Even with his influence, desegregation efforts failed in Albany.
Desegregation of the University of Georgia Albany Movement http://dp.la/exhibitions/exhibits/show/activism/movements/ albany-movement http://dp.la/exhibitions/exhibits/show/activism/movements/ albany-movement [Various clips about the Albany Movement] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F7dGWAY2AcM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F7dGWAY2AcM [3:44] http://www.myfoxal.com/story/16047367/recalling- the-hisotry-of-the-albany-movementhttp://www.myfoxal.com/story/16047367/recalling- the-hisotry-of-the-albany-movement [8:17]
In 1963, over 250,000 civil rights activists gathered in Washington, D.C. to promote their cause and push for civil rights legislation. The March on Washington During the march, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous “I Have A Dream” speech. The March on Washington led to the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Desegregation of the University of Georgia The March on Washington History Specials: King Leads the March on Washington [3:21 linked in ppt] History Specials: King Leads the March on Washington “I Have a Dream” Speech shortened with words and music [3:41 linked in ppt] “I Have a Dream” Speech shortened with words and music Martin Luther King “I Have a Dream” Full Speech [17:28] Martin Luther King “I Have a Dream” Full Speech
Due in part to the March on Washington, the United States Congress passed Civil Rights Legislation.
Desegregation of the University of Georgia Examining Civil Rights Legislation
The Civil Rights Acts The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended unequal voter registration, racial segregation in schools, workplace, and facilities. It also forbade discrimination on the basis of sex and race in hiring, promoting, and firing.
The Civil Rights Acts The Voting Rights Act of 1965 prohibited states from imposing voting qualifications or deny the right of any citizen of the U.S. to vote on account of race or color.
Civil Rights Acts Turn to an elbow partner and discuss the following: How did the daily life of African Americans change because of the Civil Rights Acts?
The struggle for civil rights in Georgia continued throughout the 1960s. During the next two decades, several influential figures rose to power and made additional contributions to Civil Rights.
He believed in states’ rights and segregation He became a public figure when he refused to serve African Americans in his Atlanta restaurant in defiance of the Civil Rights Act. He closed his restaurant rather than obey the law. Lester Maddox Georgia Capitol Tour Lester MaddoxGeorgia Capitol Tour Lester Maddox [2:10]
In 1966, he ran for Governor, but neither candidate won a majority. So, the General Assembly elected Maddox. He was Governor of Georgia from 1967 to 1971. Lester Maddox
Surprisingly, he put more African Americans into government jobs than ever before He supported prison reform and increased spending for Georgia’s universities He had a monthly event where citizens were allowed to speak with the governor (“Little People’s Days”) Lester Maddox
Think, Pair, Share Was Lester Maddox good for Georgia? Why or why not? Did Lester Maddox help or hinder the Civil Rights Movement?
At the age of 35, Maynard Jackson became the first African-American mayor of a major southern city He served as mayor of Atlanta from 1973-1981 and again from 1990-1994 Maynard Jackson
He was helpful in providing more contract work to black-owned businesses He expanded Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport He sought to add more African American police officers and promotions for African American officers Maynard Jackson
During the 1990s, he worked with other important figures to bring the Olympics to Atlanta He retired in 1994 due to health problems He died in 2003 and in his honor, the city of Atlanta renamed the airport Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Maynard Jackson
Select one of the following if desired: Maynard Jackson [7:03] Maynard Jackson A Tribute to Maynard Jackson [9:26] A Tribute to Maynard Jackson
He was active in the Civil Rights Movement He started working for the SCLC where he successfully organized demonstrations and voter registration campaigns throughout the South He became a close associate with Martin Luther King, Jr. and was with him when he was assassinated Andrew Young
He was elected as Georgia’s first African-American Congressman in 1972 He was later appointed ambassador to the United Nations In 1981, he was elected mayor of Atlanta As mayor, he helped Atlanta continue to grow and gain national standing Andrew Young
He left office in 1989, but continued to work for Georgia’s economic development He served on the Olympic committee and has worked as a consultant for many international organizations Andrew Young
Compare and Contrast the contributions of Maynard Jackson and Andrew Young to Georgia.