2 Influential Events of the Civil Rights Movement March on WashingtonElection of Maynard JacksonSibley CommissionInfluential Events of the Civil Rights MovementSNCCCivil Rights ActAlbany MovementDesegregation of the University of Georgia
3 Essential Question:How did national and political events influence the Civil Rights Movement, its outcome, and Georgia?
4 SS8H11a. Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor’s race and then end of the white primary, Brown v. Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag.SS8H11b. Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s; include such events as the founding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Sibley Commission, admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, Albany Movement, March on Washington Civil Rights Act, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox.SS8H11c. Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.
5 There are many important events and people of the Civil Rights Movement. We will focus on the most significant events and those which involved Georgia.
8 Brown v. Board of Education In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court declared segregated schools to be unconstitutional.The Georgia General Assembly was opposed to this ruling and declared the decision null (useless) and void (reject).
9 Brown v. Board of Education The Georgia General Assembly threatened to stop funding, and in some cases, allow the Governor to close any school that desegregated.A year after the Brown verdict, another court case ruled that schools must be desegregated with “all deliberate speed” which allowed southern states to take their time desegregating schools.
10 Educational Segregation in the U.S. prior to Brown
12 Brown v. Board of Education Select one of the following:Brown: A Landmark Case [6:56]Brown v. Board of Education in PBS’ The Supreme Court [4:53]
13 Brown v. Board of Education Turn to an elbow partner and discuss the following:What were the advantages and disadvantages of the Brown v. Board of Education ruling?
14 Sibley CommissionAfter the Brown v. Board of Education supreme court decision, the Georgia General Assembly supported “massive resistance” to the desegregation of Georgia’s public schools.The Governor at the time was faced with the choice of following federal mandates (orders) or closing Georgia’s public schools. He wanted the input of voters to help make a decision.
15 Sibley CommissionA committee was created to investigate Georgian’s opinions on the matter.John Sibley, a segregationist lawyer, led 10 hearings across the state to determine if Georgians felt that they should continue to resist the federal government or change laws to integrate schools.
16 Sibley CommissionAfter the sessions, 60% of Georgians claimed that they would rather close the public schools than to integrate.Despite the findings, Sibley pushed for schools in Georgia to desegregate on a limited basis. The governor asked the General Assembly to accept Sibley’s recommendations after his failed attempts to close the University of Georgia.
17 Sibley CommissionHow did the findings from the Sibley Commission explain the public’s reaction to the Brown v. Board of Education ruling?
18 The Brown v. Board of Education verdict was in 1954, but it was not until 1961 that Atlanta became the first system to integrate. Ten years later, all school systems in the state were desegregated.
19 Desegregation of the University of Georgia In 1959, Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter applied for college to the University of Georgia.
20 Desegregation of the University of Georgia They were not accepted by the university based on their race, but the university claimed it was due to lack of housing along with Holmes “evasiveness” during a campus interview.The two students brought their case to federal court and after three weeks, the court ruled in their favor. They began classes in January 1961.
21 Desegregation of the University of Georgia Soon after arriving on campus, a mob of students, locals, and members of the KKK started a riot on campus and threw bricks and rocks through Hunter’s dorm window.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QBo9Jrm2Y9gThe Georgia state patrol escorted them back to Atlanta, but a few days later the court ruled that they be allowed to return. Both graduated from the University.
22 Throughout the 1960s, civil rights groups worked to bring equality to Georgia. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) created by Martin Luther King, Jr. was one group. Another was the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
23 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) A national organization formed in North Carolina, it worked with the SCLC and focused on organizing peaceful non-violent protest.The group, made up of high school and college-aged students, became known for sit-ins, freedom rides, and the “freedom summer” in Mississippi.
24 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) CNN: SNCC’s legacy: A civil rights history [5:56]
25 Albany MovementThe Albany Movement involved several civil rights organizations like the NAACP and SNCC.Their goal was to end all types of segregation in the city of Albany, Ga. from buses and trains to libraries, hospitals, and juries.The groups used methods such as mass demonstrations, sit-ins, and boycotts.
26 Albany MovementBy late 1961, more than 500 protestors had been arrested. Albany’s police chief was careful to keep the peace and avoid negative publicity.Martin Luther King, Jr. came to Albany to lend his support and bring national attention to the cause. He was jailed along with the protestors. Even with his influence, desegregation efforts failed in Albany.
27 Desegregation of the University of Georgia Albany Movement[8:17]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F7dGWAY2AcM [3:44]Desegregation of the University of Georgia[Various clips about the Albany Movement]
28 The March on Washington In 1963, over 250,000 civil rights activists gathered in Washington, D.C. to promote their cause and push for civil rights legislation.During the march, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous “I Have A Dream” speech.The March on Washington led to the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
29 The March on Washington Desegregation of the University of Georgia History Specials: King Leads the March on Washington [3:21 linked in ppt]“I Have a Dream” Speech shortened with words and music [3:41 linked in ppt]Martin Luther King “I Have a Dream” Full Speech [17:28]Desegregation of the University of Georgia
30 Due in part to the March on Washington, the United States Congress passed Civil Rights Legislation.
31 Examining Civil Rights Legislation Desegregation of the University of Georgia
32 The Civil Rights ActsThe Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended unequal voter registration, racial segregation in schools, workplace, and facilities. It also forbade discrimination on the basis of sex and race in hiring, promoting, and firing.
33 The Civil Rights ActsThe Voting Rights Act of 1965 prohibited states from imposing voting qualifications or deny the right of any citizen of the U.S. to vote on account of race or color.
34 Turn to an elbow partner and discuss the following: Civil Rights ActsTurn to an elbow partner and discuss the following:How did the daily life of African Americans change because of the Civil Rights Acts?
35 The struggle for civil rights in Georgia continued throughout the 1960s. During the next two decades, several influential figures rose to power and made additional contributions to Civil Rights.
37 Lester Maddox He believed in states’ rights and segregation He became a public figure when he refused to serve African Americans in his Atlanta restaurant in defiance of the Civil Rights Act.He closed his restaurant rather than obey the law.Georgia Capitol Tour Lester Maddox [2:10]
38 Lester MaddoxIn 1966, he ran for Governor, but neither candidate won a majority. So, the General Assembly elected Maddox.He was Governor of Georgia from 1967 to 1971.
39 Lester MaddoxSurprisingly, he put more African Americans into government jobs than ever beforeHe supported prison reform and increased spending for Georgia’s universitiesHe had a monthly event where citizens were allowed to speak with the governor (“Little People’s Days”)
40 Think, Pair, Share Was Lester Maddox good for Georgia? Why or why not? Did Lester Maddox help or hinder the Civil Rights Movement?
42 Maynard JacksonAt the age of 35, Maynard Jackson became the first African-American mayor of a major southern cityHe served as mayor of Atlanta from and again from
43 Maynard JacksonHe was helpful in providing more contract work to black-owned businessesHe expanded Hartsfield Atlanta International AirportHe sought to add more African American police officers and promotions for African American officers
44 Maynard JacksonDuring the 1990s, he worked with other important figures to bring the Olympics to AtlantaHe retired in 1994 due to health problemsHe died in 2003 and in his honor, the city of Atlanta renamed the airport Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International
45 Maynard Jackson Select one of the following if desired: A Tribute to Maynard Jackson [9:26]
47 Andrew Young He was active in the Civil Rights Movement He started working for the SCLC where he successfully organized demonstrations and voter registration campaigns throughout the SouthHe became a close associate with Martin Luther King, Jr. and was with him when he was assassinated
48 Andrew YoungHe was elected as Georgia’s first African-American Congressman in 1972He was later appointed ambassador to the United NationsIn 1981, he was elected mayor of AtlantaAs mayor, he helped Atlanta continue to grow and gain national standing
49 Andrew YoungHe left office in 1989, but continued to work for Georgia’s economic developmentHe served on the Olympic committee and has worked as a consultant for many international organizations
50 Compare and Contrast the contributions of Maynard Jackson and Andrew Young to Georgia.