Presentation on theme: "Georgia Studies Unit 7: Modern Georgia and Civil Rights"— Presentation transcript:
1 Georgia Studies Unit 7: Modern Georgia and Civil Rights Lesson 2: Segregation and Civil RightsStudy Presentation
2 Lesson 2: Segregation and Civil Rights ESSENTIAL QUESTION:How can the policies of state and local political leaders influence economic growth?How can political policies and decisions create a climate in which individuals and groups can voice opinions to bring about social change?
3 End of the White Primary White Primary – Used, after the Civil War, to keep African Americans from voting.1900 Democratic Primary – Democratic leaders decided that only white Democrats could vote in the primary election.GA was essentially a one-party state (Republican and Independent candidates got little support from white citizens).As a result, white, Democratic candidates were often elected with little or no African American support.End of the White Primary – King v. Chapman Supreme Court case made the white primary systems in GA unconstitutional (illegal).
4 The 1946 Governor’s RaceGovernor Ellis Arnall’s term of office was due to end in 1946.Eugene Talmadge was elected to his 4th Term as Georgia’s Governor but died before taking the Oath of Office.Began the “Three Governor’s” Controversy:Herman Talmadge (Eugene’s son) was chosen as governor by the legislature due to the amount of write-in votes he had received and were “found” after the election.Current Governor Arnall declares that Lieutenant Governor Melvin Thompson was the new Governor as he was the rightful successor.January 15, 1947, Herman Talmadge’s men broke into the governor’s office and changed the locks and readied themselves to run the state.Governor Arnall set up a temporary office at the Capitol Information counter; Arnall officially resigned three days later.Finally in March 1947, the Georgia Supreme Court ruled Thompson was the governor until a special election could be held in At this election, Herman Talmadge was elected governor.
5 Early Civil Rights in GA Herman Talmadge – Served as governor of GA briefly in 1947 and again from Later served in the U.S. Senate.Segregationist – Worked to keep African American and white citizens separateAs a politician, Talmadge worked to help GA’s farmers and tried to stop Civil Rights.1956 State Flag – In 1956, GA’s state flag was changed to prominently display the Confederate Battle Flag; changed in 2001 as citizens found the flag offensive.
6 The Supreme Court and Education 1948: racial integration ordered in armed forces1950: Brown v. Board of Education – case struck down “separate but equal” concept; schools were to be integratedSibley Commission: found that most Georgians would rather close schools than integrateMore private schools opened1961: Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes first African American students at UGA1971: All Georgia public schools integrated
7 Montgomery Bus Boycott Dec. 1, 1955: Rosa Parks, African American, refused to give up her bus seat to whites in Montgomery, ALDr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the NAACP organized civic leaders and prepared marchesSupreme court ruled segregation on public transportation unconstitutional
8 A Nonviolent Movement is Born Benjamin Mays – President of Morehouse College; educator and mentor to Martin Luther King, Jr. of Atlanta and as a Civil Rights advocate.Martin Luther King, Jr. developed a nonviolent approach to social changeFour-prong approach:direct, nonviolent actionslegal remediesballotseconomic boycottsSCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference – civil rights group led by Dr. KingSit-in: Dr. King’s strategy to people refuse to leave a public building until their demands are met
9 The Albany Movement1961: Albany, GA becomes center of civil rights activitySNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee – challenged segregated bus system in AlbanyNearly 500 people jailedBiracial committee formed to study concerns of African Americans
10 Protests Move to Alabama 1963: Martin Luther King, Jr. begins work to integrate all aspects of public life in Birmingham, ALOver 3000 people arrested16th Street Baptist Church Bombing – KKK sets a bomb which killed 4 black children in their church in Birmingham, AlabamaAfrican Americans and whites from the north and south began to join together to stop the violence
11 The Civil Rights Act President Kennedy created new civil rights laws Kennedy was assassinated before the new laws came into effectLyndon Johnson became president and pushed for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964All public facilities had to be integratedDiscrimination was prohibited in business and labor unions
12 The Voting Rights Act1964: Freedom Summer – Martin Luther King, Jr. and SNCC worked to get African Americans registered to voteSelma-to-Montgomery, AL march led by Dr. KingNearly 30,000 marchersCongress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 – one million African Americans were registered to vote7BOhGS
13 A Shift in MoodSome people moved from the nonviolent strategies to more aggressive onesSNCC and “Black Panthers” confronted policeMalcolm X preached black separatismRace riots in Los Angeles, Detroit, and NewarkLester Maddox became governor of Georgia in Had forcibly turned away black activists who challenged segregation at the restaurant he had owned. Very popular with Georgians who supported segregation.April 1968: Dr. King assassinated in Memphis, TN while working with striking sanitation workers
14 Atlanta: A Case Study in Change Integration in Atlanta was relatively peacefulChurch leaders get much credit for this peaceful changeWilliam Hartsfield: Atlanta mayor who expanded Atlanta’s airport and worked with African American and white leaders; worked to integrate Atlanta’s schoolsIvan Allen: Atlanta mayor ordered removal of “white” and “colored” segregation signs in the City Hall; integrated police and fire services and city governmentTroubled times followed but were overcomeThe city became known as “the city too busy to hate”
15 African Americans Take Office Maynard Jackson: Elected mayor of Atlanta in 1973 (1st African American mayor of a major southern city).Andrew Young: An aide to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Executive director of the SCLC. In 1972, won election to the U.S. House of Representatives (1st African American from GA to be elected to Congress since the 1860’s).