Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Bio-Macromolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bio-Macromolecules

2 Organic Compounds Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic.
Macromolecules are large organic molecules.

3 Carbon (C) Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell.
Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements). Usually with C, H, O or N. Example: CH4(methane)

4 BIO-Macromolecules Large organic molecules. Also called POLYMERS.
Made up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS. Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

5 Carbohydrates (CH2O)n CHO in 1:2:1 ratio.

6 Carbohydrates 3 forms: Small sugar molecules to large sugar molecules.
1. monosaccharide 2. disaccharide 3. polysaccharide

7 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples
(3 most common)1.Glucose 2,Deoxyribose 3. Ribose and fructose galactose glucose (C6H12O6)

8 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: two sugars unit Examples:
Sucrose (glucose+fructose)sugar cane Lactose (glucose+galactose)milk Maltose (glucose+glucose)malt glucose

9 Carbohydrates Polysaccharide: many sugar units of glucose
The function of carbohydrate is to store short(glucose) and long term(starch) energy supply; structural function of cellulose. Polysaccharide: many sugar units of glucose Examples:starch(plants) (bread, potatoes, wheat,corn) glycogen(animals) (liver, muscle) cellulose(plants) (lettuce, corn, wood, leaf etc) glucose cellulose

10 Carbohydrates Parallele lines allow for fiber formation: which give structural strength

11 Lipids

12 Lipids General term for compounds which are non-polar and not soluble in water. Lipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents Lipids have more bonds(more energy) than carbohydrates Remember: “ Lipids store the most energy”. Long term storage of energy. Examples: Fats 2. Phospholipids 3. Oils 4. Waxes 5. Steroid hormones Estrogen testosteron (Cholesterol) 6. Triglycerides

13 Lipids Six functions of lipids: 1. Long term energy storage
2. Protection against heat loss (insulation) 3. Protection against physical shock 4. Protection against water loss 5. Chemical messengers (hormones) 6. Major component of membranes (phospholipids)

14 Lipids Triglycerides (most lipids) Are composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. H H-C----O glycerol O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 = O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 = 3 fatty acids O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH =CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 =

15 Major building block of the cell membrane
Phospholipids Major building block of the cell membrane Soluble in water Hydrophilic head Insoluble in water Hydrophobic tails

16 Fatty Acids There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see these on food labels: 1. Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds health , they are as straight chains , thus are usually solid at room Temp (bad fat for your health) 2.Unsaturated fatty acids: Have double bonds, are bent in shape, thus are liquids at room Temp. (good fat : Olive oil, salmon and sardine oil, duck meat oil) -CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 0= O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH =CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 = unsaturated

17 Proteins

18 Proteins (Polypeptides)
Amino acids (20 different kinds of aa) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides). Six functions of proteins: 1. Storage: albumin (egg white) 2. Transport: hemoglobin 3. Regulatory: hormones(insulin) 4. Movement: muscles 5. Structural: membranes, hair, nails,collagen 6. Enzymes: Catalyst to cellular reactions. Enzymes are involve in metabolism

19 Proteins (Polypeptides)
Four levels of protein structure: A. Primary Structure B. Secondary Structure C. Tertiary Structure D. Quaternary Structure These protein’s structures are very sensitive to temperature (those structures depend on hydrogen bonds : albumin of egg white hardens with boiling water) and PH (Amino acid ionic charges: casein of milk curdles with acid of lemon juice)

20 Example # 1: Collagen and Keratin

21 Primary Structure aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 Peptide Bonds
Amino acids (monomers) bonded together by peptide bonds that form straight chains of Polymers(=polypeptide). Very large polypeptide = protein. Metabolic proteins are Enzymes. Peptide bond is formed by the Amino/Carboxyl sections of the Amino acid. The R group is responsible for the Hydrogen and ionic bonds formed within the protein. aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 Peptide Bonds Amino Acids (aa) Amino acids only differ by their R group

22 Secondary Structure

23 Secondary Structure 3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure into coils and pleats held together by hydrogen bonds. Two examples: Beta Pleated Sheet Alpha Helix Hydrogen bonds( sensitive to temperature= denatured) 3 Example: Albumin in Egg white, Keratin in hair. Fever to fight bacterial infection

24 Tertiary Structure Secondary structures bent and folded into a more complex 3-D arrangement of linked polypeptides Bonds: Hydrogen-bonds, ionic, disulfide bridges (S-S) Called a “subunit”. Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet This subunit is made of 3 chains of polypeptide

25 Quaternary Structure Example # 2

26 Quaternary Structure

27 Quaternary Structure Effect of temperature and PH
On four different Enzymes(proteins) (A,B,X,Y)

28 Nucleic Acids

29 Nucleic acids Two types: a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA- double helix)
b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) Nucleic acids are composed of long chains of nucleotides The function of nucleic acids is to contain and transfer genetic information.

30 Nucleic acids Nucleotides include: phosphate group
pentose sugar (5-carbon) nitrogenous bases: adenine (A) thymine (T) DNA only uracil (U) RNA only cytosine (C) guanine (G)

31 A Nucleotide O O=P-O N CH2 O C1 C4 C3 C2 Phosphate Group
Nitrogenous base (A, G, C,T or U) CH2 O C1 C4 C3 C2 5 Sugar (deoxyribose)

32 Nitrogenous bases Purines Pyrimidines Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine

33 DNA - double helix P O 1 2 3 4 5 P O 1 2 3 4 5 Hydrogen bonds G C T A

34 DNA - double helix

Download ppt "Bio-Macromolecules."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google