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1 Bio-Macromolecules 2 Organic Compounds CompoundsCARBON organicCompounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromoleculesorganic moleculesMacromolecules.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Bio-Macromolecules 2 Organic Compounds CompoundsCARBON organicCompounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromoleculesorganic moleculesMacromolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1 Bio-Macromolecules

3 2 Organic Compounds CompoundsCARBON organicCompounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromoleculesorganic moleculesMacromolecules are large organic molecules.

4 3 Carbon (C) Carbon4 electronsCarbon has 4 electrons in outer shell. Carboncovalent bonds 4Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements). C, H, O or NUsually with C, H, O or N. Example:CH 4 (methane)Example:CH 4 (methane)

5 4 BIO-Macromolecules Large organic molecules.Large organic molecules. POLYMERSAlso called POLYMERS. MONOMERSMade up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS. Examples:Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

6 5 Carbohydrates (CH2O)n CHO in 1:2:1 ratio.

7 6 Carbohydrates 3 forms: Small sugar molecules large sugar molecules3 forms: Small sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. 1.monosaccharide 2.disaccharide 3.polysaccharide

8 7 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples (3 most common)1.Glucose Deoxyribose 2,Deoxyribose 3. Ribose 3. Ribose andfructose galactose andfructose galactose glucose ( (C 6 H 12 O 6 )

9 8 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: two sugars unit Examples: –Sucrose (glucose+fructose)sugar cane –Lactose (glucose+galactose)milk –Maltose (glucose+glucose)malt glucoseglucose

10 9Carbohydrates Polysaccharide: many sugar units of glucose Examples:starch( plants ) (bread, potatoes, wheat,corn) glycogen( animals ) (liver, muscle) glycogen( animals ) (liver, muscle) cellulose( plants ) (lettuce, corn, wood, leaf etc) cellulose( plants ) (lettuce, corn, wood, leaf etc) glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose cellulose The function of carbohydrate is to store short(glucose) and long term(starch) energy supply; structural function of cellulose.

11 10 Carbohydrates Parallele lines allow for fiber formation: which give structural strength

12 11 Lipids

13 12Lipids not soluble in waterGeneral term for compounds which are non-polar and not soluble in water. are soluble in hydrophobic solventsLipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents Lipids have more bonds(more energy)Lipids have more bonds(more energy) than carbohydrates Remember:“ Lipids store the most energy”. Long term storage of energy. than carbohydrates Remember: “ Lipids store the most energy”. Long term storage of energy. Examples: 1. FatsExamples: 1. Fats 2. Phospholipids 3. Oils 4. Waxes 5. Steroid hormones Estrogen testosteron (Cholesterol) 6. Triglycerides

14 13 Lipids Six functions of lipids: 1.Long term energy storage 2.Protection against heat loss (insulation) 3.Protection against physical shock 4.Protection against water loss 5.Chemical messengers (hormones) 6.Major component of membranes (phospholipids)

15 14 Lipids Triglycerides (most lipids) Are c1 glycerol3 fatty acids Triglycerides (most lipids) Are composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. H H-C----O H glycerol O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = 3 fatty acids O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 =

16 Phospholipids Major building block of the cell membrane Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails Soluble in water Insoluble in water

17 16 Fatty Acids fatty acids There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see these on food labels: 1.Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds health, they are as straight chains, thus are usually solid at room Temp (bad fat for your health) 2.Unsaturated fatty acids: Have double bonds, are bent in shape, thus are liquids at room Temp. (good fat : Olive oil, salmon and sardine oil, duck meat oil) 2.Unsaturated fatty acids: Have double bonds, are bent in shape, thus are liquids at room Temp. (good fat : Olive oil, salmon and sardine oil, duck meat oil) -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 0= O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = unsaturated

18 17 Proteins

19 18 Proteins (Polypeptides) peptide bonds polypeptidesAmino acids (20 different kinds of aa) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides). Six functions of proteins:Six functions of proteins: 1.Storage: albumin (egg white) 2.Transport: hemoglobin 3.Regulatory: hormones(insulin) 4.Movement: muscles 5.Structural: membranes, hair, nails,collagen 6.Enzymes: Catalyst to cellular reactions. Enzymes are involve in metabolism

20 19 Proteins (Polypeptides) Four levels of protein structure: A.Primary Structure B.Secondary Structure C.Tertiary Structure D.Quaternary Structure These protein’s structures are very sensitive to temperature (those structures depend on hydrogen bonds : albumin of egg white hardens with boiling water) and PH (Amino acid ionic charges: casein of milk curdles with acid of lemon juice)

21 20 Example # 1: Collagen and Keratin

22 21 Primary Structure peptide bonds that form straight chains of Polymers(=polypeptide). Very large polypeptide = protein. Metabolic proteins are Enzymes. Peptide bond is formed by the Amino/Carboxyl sections of the Amino acid. The R group is responsible for Amino acids (monomers) bonded together by peptide bonds that form straight chains of Polymers(=polypeptide). Very large polypeptide = protein. Metabolic proteins are Enzymes. Peptide bond is formed by the Amino/Carboxyl sections of the Amino acid. The R group is responsible for the Hydrogen and ionic bonds formed within the protein. the Hydrogen and ionic bonds formed within the protein. aa1aa2aa3aa4aa5aa6 Peptide Bonds Amino Acids (aa) Amino acids only differ by their R group

23 22 Secondary Structure

24 23 Secondary Structure primary structurecoilspleats hydrogen bonds3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure into coils and pleats held together by hydrogen bonds. Two examples:Two examples: Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet Hydrogen bonds( sensitive to temperature= denatured) 3 Example: Albumin in Egg white, Keratin in hair. Fever to fight bacterial infection

25 24 Tertiary Structure Secondary structuresbentfolded more complex 3-D arrangementSecondary structures bent and folded into a more complex 3-D arrangement of linked polypeptides Bonds: Hydrogen-bonds, ionic, disulfide bridges (S-S)Bonds: Hydrogen-bonds, ionic, disulfide bridges (S-S) “subunit”.Called a “subunit”. Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet This subunit is made of 3 chains of polypeptide

26 25 Quaternary Structure Example # 2

27 26 Quaternary Structure

28 27 Quaternary Structure Effect of temperature and PH On four different Enzymes(proteins) (A,B,X,Y)

29 28 Nucleic Acids

30 29 Nucleic acids Two types:Two types: a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA- double helix) b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) Nucleic acids nucleotidesNucleic acids are composed of long chains of nucleotides The function of nucleic acids is to contain and transfer genetic information.

31 30 Nucleic acids Nucleotides include:Nucleotides include: phosphate group pentose sugar (5-carbon) nitrogenous bases: adenine (A) thymine (T) DNA only uracil (U) RNA only cytosine (C) guanine (G)

32 31 A Nucleotide O O=P-O OPhosphate Group Group N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C,T or U) (A, G, C,T or U) CH2 O C1C1 C4C4 C3C3 C2C2 5 Sugar Sugar(deoxyribose)

33 32 Nitrogenous bases Nitrogenous bases Purines Pyrimidines Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine

34 33 DNA - double helix P P P O O O P P P O O O G C TA Hydrogen bonds

35 34 DNA - double helix


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