Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules Organic Compounds"— Presentation transcript:
1Macromolecules Organic Compounds Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic.Macromolecules are large organic molecules.
2Carbon (C) Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell. Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements).Usually with C, H, O or N.Example: CH4(methane)
3Macromolecules Large organic molecules Also called POLYMERS Made up of smaller “building blocks” called monomers4 kinds1. Carbohydrates2. Lipids3. Proteins4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
4Carbohydratessimple sugar molecules assembled into large sugar moleculesExamples:MonosaccharideDisaccharidePolysaccharide
5Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: One sugar unit Examples: glucose (C6H12O6)deoxyriboseriboseFructoseGalactoseglucose
6Carbohydrates Disaccharide: Two sugar units Examples: Sucrose (glucose+fructose)Lactose (glucose+galactose)Maltose (glucose+glucose)glucose
7Carbohydrates Polysaccharide: many sugar units Examples: starch (bread, potatoes)glycogen (beef muscle)cellulose (lettuce, corn)glucosecellulose
8Lipids Compounds which are NOT soluble in water Building blocks are fatty acidsMain function is energy storageExamplesFats (butter, lard, crisco)Phospholipids (cell membrane)Oils (olive oil, vegetable oil, peanut oil)WaxesSteroids
9Lipids Main functions of lipids: 1. Long term energy storage NeedToKnow!!!LipidsMain functions of lipids:1. Long term energy storage--can be broken down for energy2. Provide insulation3. Forms protective coatings--waxes (plant surfaces, duck feathers, beaver fur)4. Major component of membranes (phospholipids)
10Proteins Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds Also known as polypeptidesOnly 20 AA and the order/way they are put together determine the proteinBuilding Blocks are amino acidsFunctions of proteins:Structure for tissues and organsEnzymes (speed up chemical reactions)Cellular MetabolismForm hair, muscles, nails, horns, hooves, etc!!NeedToKnow!!!
11Nucleic Acids Building Blocks are nucleotides Two types Deoxyribonucleic acidDNA-double helixRibonucleic acidRNA-single strandStores all genetic info, instructions for making proteins, main energy molecule for cells (ATP)
12Nucleic Acids Nucleotides are made of phosphate sugar nitrogen base adenine (A)thymine (T)uracil (U)cytosine (C)guanine (G)