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1 Organic Compounds Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules. Macromolecules.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Organic Compounds Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules. Macromolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Organic Compounds Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules. Macromolecules

2 2 Carbon (C) Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell. Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements). Usually with C, H, O or N. Example: CH 4 (methane)

3 3 Macromolecules Large organic molecules Also called POLYMERS Made up of smaller building blocks called monomers 4 kinds 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

4 4 Carbohydrates simple sugar molecules assembled into large sugar molecules Examples: –Monosaccharide –Disaccharide –Polysaccharide

5 5 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: One sugar unit Examples:glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) deoxyribose ribose Fructose Galactose glucose

6 6 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: Two sugar units Examples: –Sucrose (glucose+fructose) –Lactose (glucose+galactose) –Maltose (glucose+glucose) glucoseglucose

7 7 Carbohydrates Polysaccharide: many sugar units Examples:starch (bread, potatoes) glycogen (beef muscle) cellulose (lettuce, corn) glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose cellulose

8 8Lipids Compounds which are NOT soluble in water Building blocks are fatty acids Main function is energy storage Examples –Fats (butter, lard, crisco) –Phospholipids (cell membrane) –Oils (olive oil, vegetable oil, peanut oil) –Waxes –Steroids

9 9 Lipids Main functions of lipids: 1. Long term energy storage --can be broken down for energy 2.Provide insulation 3.Forms protective coatings --waxes (plant surfaces, duck feathers, beaver fur) 4.Major component of membranes (phospholipids) NeedToKnow!!!

10 10 Proteins peptide bondsAmino acids bonded together by peptide bonds –Also known as polypeptides –Only 20 AA and the order/way they are put together determine the protein Building Blocks are amino acidsBuilding Blocks are amino acids Functions of proteins:Functions of proteins: –Structure for tissues and organs –Enzymes (speed up chemical reactions) –Cellular Metabolism –Form hair, muscles, nails, horns, hooves, etc!! NeedToKnow!!!

11 11 Nucleic Acids Building Blocks are nucleotides Two types –Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA-double helix –Ribonucleic acid RNA-single strand Stores all genetic info, instructions for making proteins, main energy molecule for cells (ATP)

12 12 Nucleic Acids Nucleotides are made ofNucleotides are made of –phosphate –sugar –nitrogen base adenine (A)adenine (A) thymine (T)thymine (T) uracil (U)uracil (U) cytosine (C)cytosine (C) guanine (G)guanine (G)


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