Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry OBJECTIVE: Investigate and understand the chemical and biochemical principles essential for life. Key concepts include- b)the structure."— Presentation transcript:
OBJECTIVE: Investigate and understand the chemical and biochemical principles essential for life. Key concepts include- b)the structure and function of macromolecules c)the nature of enzymes.
Most life processes are a series of chemical reactions influenced by environmental and genetic factors.
Metabolism the sum of all biochemical processes
2 Metabolic Processes Anabolism- the building up of complex molecules Catabolism- the breaking down of complex molecules
–The main components of a living cell are: Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen -Phosphorus -Sulfur
Inside every cell is a concentrated mixture of thousands of different macromolecules forming a variety of specialized structures that carry out cell functions, such as: – energy production – transport – waste disposal – synthesis (creation) of new molecules – storage of genetic material.
Organic Compounds CompoundsCARBON organicCompounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromoleculesorganic moleculesMacromolecules are large organic molecules.
Carbon (C) Carbon4 electronsCarbon has 4 electrons in outer shell Carboncovalent bonds 4Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements) H, O, N, or CUsually with H, O, N, or C Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 (sugar)Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 (sugar)
Macromolecules Large organic molecules.Large organic molecules. POLYMERSAlso called POLYMERS. MONOMERSMade up of smaller building blocks called MONOMERS. Examples:Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
1. Carbohydrates Small sugar moleculeslarge sugar moleculesSmall sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. Examples:Examples: A.monosaccharide B.disaccharide C.polysaccharide
1. Carbohydrates A.monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples:glucose (Examples:glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 blood sugar)deoxyriboseribose galactose (milk sugar) fructose (honey) glucose
B. disaccharide: two sugar unit Example:sucrose = glucose + fructoseExample:sucrose = glucose + fructose fructoseglucose
The primary functions of carbohydrate macromolecules are to: – provide and store energy.
2. Lipids not soluble in waterGeneral term for compounds which are not soluble in water. are soluble in hydrophobic solventsLipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents. Remember:stores the most energyRemember: stores the most energy
5 functions of lipids:5 functions of lipids: 1.Long term energy storage (fat) 2.Protection against heat loss (insulation) 3.Protection against water loss & germs (oils & waxes) 4.Chemical messengers (hormones & steroids) 5.Major component of membranes (phospholipids)
fatty acidsThere are two kinds of fatty acids you may see on food labels: 1.Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad) 2.Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good) O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = saturated O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = unsaturated
3. Proteins (Polypeptides) Amino acids (the building blocks of protein) 2 kinds of amino acids -essential & non-essential amino acids - Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by our body & need to be obtained through our diet
7 functions of proteins:7 functions of proteins: 1.Storage:albumin (egg white) 2.Transport: hemoglobin 3.Regulatory:hormones 4.Movement:muscles 5.Structural:membranes, hair, nails 6.Enzymes:cellular reactions 7. Defense:antibodies
A proteins structure depends on its specific jobA proteins structure depends on its specific job The sequence of amino acids and the shape of the chain are a consequence of attractions between the chains parts. The sequence of amino acids and the shape of the chain are a consequence of attractions between the chains parts.
Four levels of protein structure:Four levels of protein structure: A.Primary Structure (1°) B.Secondary Structure (2°) C.Tertiary Structure (3°) D.Quaternary Structure (4°)
A.Primary Structure (1°) peptide bonds.Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds. aa1aa2aa3aa4aa5aa6 Peptide Bonds Amino Acids (aa)
B.Secondary Structure (2°) primary structurecoilspleats hydrogen bonds3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure into coils and pleats held together by hydrogen bonds.
Subunit: Alpha Helix & Beta Pleated Sheets joined together
D.Quaternary Structure (4°) Composed of 2 or more subunits. enzymes (hemoglobin)Example: enzymes (hemoglobin) 3° subunits
Enzymes: Special Proteins
Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that help speed- up chemical reactions in the body. Enzymes are specific in their choosing –Each enzyme has only one reaction it can help.
Enzymes are always recycled when they perform their function. –The specific enzyme can be used over and over again. The structure is what determines its function. High temperatures or changes in pH can affect the structure of an enzyme and make it unusable. This is called denaturation.
The place where the substrate binds to an enzyme is called the active site. Enzymes and substrates fit together like a lock & key.
Most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and pH.Most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and pH. At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow.At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow. High temperatures or extremes of pH can irreversibly change the structure of proteins and alter their function.High temperatures or extremes of pH can irreversibly change the structure of proteins and alter their function.
4. Nucleic acids Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) control cell activities by controlling protein synthesisNucleic acids (DNA and RNA) control cell activities by controlling protein synthesis
4. Nucleic acids Two types:Two types: 1. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA-double helix) 2. ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) Nucleic acidsNucleic acids nucleotides are composed of long chains of nucleotides