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Biochemistry OBJECTIVE: Investigate and understand the chemical and biochemical principles essential for life. Key concepts include- b)the structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry OBJECTIVE: Investigate and understand the chemical and biochemical principles essential for life. Key concepts include- b)the structure."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Biochemistry

3 OBJECTIVE: Investigate and understand the chemical and biochemical principles essential for life. Key concepts include- b)the structure and function of macromolecules c)the nature of enzymes.

4 Most life processes are a series of chemical reactions influenced by environmental and genetic factors.

5 Metabolism the sum of all biochemical processes

6 2 Metabolic Processes Anabolism- the building up of complex molecules Catabolism- the breaking down of complex molecules

7 –The main components of a living cell are: Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen -Phosphorus -Sulfur

8 Inside every cell is a concentrated mixture of thousands of different macromolecules forming a variety of specialized structures that carry out cell functions, such as: – energy production – transport – waste disposal – synthesis (creation) of new molecules – storage of genetic material.

9 Organic Compounds CompoundsCARBON organicCompounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromoleculesorganic moleculesMacromolecules are large organic molecules.

10 Carbon (C) Carbon4 electronsCarbon has 4 electrons in outer shell Carboncovalent bonds 4Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements) H, O, N, or CUsually with H, O, N, or C Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 (sugar)Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 (sugar)

11 Macromolecules Large organic molecules.Large organic molecules. POLYMERSAlso called POLYMERS. MONOMERSMade up of smaller building blocks called MONOMERS. Examples:Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

12 1. Carbohydrates Small sugar moleculeslarge sugar moleculesSmall sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. Examples:Examples: A.monosaccharide B.disaccharide C.polysaccharide

13 1. Carbohydrates A.monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples:glucose (Examples:glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 blood sugar)deoxyriboseribose galactose (milk sugar) fructose (honey) glucose

14 B. disaccharide: two sugar unit Example:sucrose = glucose + fructoseExample:sucrose = glucose + fructose fructoseglucose

15 C.polysaccharide: many sugar units Examples:starch (bread, potatoes)Examples:starch (bread, potatoes) glycogen (beef muscle) cellulose (lettuce, corn) chitin (exoskeletons) glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose cellulose

16 The primary functions of carbohydrate macromolecules are to: – provide and store energy.

17 2. Lipids not soluble in waterGeneral term for compounds which are not soluble in water. are soluble in hydrophobic solventsLipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents. Remember:stores the most energyRemember: stores the most energy

18 2. Lipids Examples:1. FatsExamples:1. Fats 2. Phospholipids 3. Oils 4. Waxes 5. Steroid hormones 6. Triglycerides

19 5 functions of lipids:5 functions of lipids: 1.Long term energy storage (fat) 2.Protection against heat loss (insulation) 3.Protection against water loss & germs (oils & waxes) 4.Chemical messengers (hormones & steroids) 5.Major component of membranes (phospholipids)

20 Triglycerides: 1 glycerol 3 fatty acidsTriglycerides: composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. H H-C----O H glycerol O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = fatty acids O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 =

21 fatty acidsThere are two kinds of fatty acids you may see on food labels: 1.Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad) 2.Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good) O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = saturated O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = unsaturated

22 3. Proteins (Polypeptides) Amino acids (the building blocks of protein) 2 kinds of amino acids -essential & non-essential amino acids - Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by our body & need to be obtained through our diet

23 7 functions of proteins:7 functions of proteins: 1.Storage:albumin (egg white) 2.Transport: hemoglobin 3.Regulatory:hormones 4.Movement:muscles 5.Structural:membranes, hair, nails 6.Enzymes:cellular reactions 7. Defense:antibodies

24 A proteins structure depends on its specific jobA proteins structure depends on its specific job The sequence of amino acids and the shape of the chain are a consequence of attractions between the chains parts. The sequence of amino acids and the shape of the chain are a consequence of attractions between the chains parts.

25 Four levels of protein structure:Four levels of protein structure: A.Primary Structure (1°) B.Secondary Structure (2°) C.Tertiary Structure (3°) D.Quaternary Structure (4°)

26 A.Primary Structure (1°) peptide bonds.Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds. aa1aa2aa3aa4aa5aa6 Peptide Bonds Amino Acids (aa)

27 B.Secondary Structure (2°) primary structurecoilspleats hydrogen bonds3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure into coils and pleats held together by hydrogen bonds.

28 B.Secondary Structure (2°) Two examples: Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet Hydrogen Bonds

29 Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheets

30 C.Tertiary Structure (3°) Secondary structuresbendfold more complex 3-D arrangementSecondary structures bend and fold into a more complex 3-D arrangement. subunit.Called a subunit.

31 C.Tertiary Structure (3°) Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet

32 Subunit: Alpha Helix & Beta Pleated Sheets joined together

33 D.Quaternary Structure (4°) Composed of 2 or more subunits. enzymes (hemoglobin)Example: enzymes (hemoglobin) 3° subunits

34 Subunits

35 Enzymes: Special Proteins

36 Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that help speed- up chemical reactions in the body. Enzymes are specific in their choosing –Each enzyme has only one reaction it can help.

37 Enzymes are always recycled when they perform their function. –The specific enzyme can be used over and over again. The structure is what determines its function. High temperatures or changes in pH can affect the structure of an enzyme and make it unusable. This is called denaturation.

38 The place where the substrate binds to an enzyme is called the active site. Enzymes and substrates fit together like a lock & key.

39 Most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and pH.Most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and pH. At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow.At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow. High temperatures or extremes of pH can irreversibly change the structure of proteins and alter their function.High temperatures or extremes of pH can irreversibly change the structure of proteins and alter their function.

40 4. Nucleic acids Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) control cell activities by controlling protein synthesisNucleic acids (DNA and RNA) control cell activities by controlling protein synthesis

41 4. Nucleic acids Two types:Two types: 1. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA-double helix) 2. ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) Nucleic acidsNucleic acids nucleotides are composed of long chains of nucleotides

42 4. Nucleic acids Nucleotides:Nucleotides: phosphate group sugar (5-carbon) nitrogenous bases adenine (A) thymine (T) - uracil (U) RNA cytosine (C) guanine (G)

43 Nucleotide O O=P-O OPhosphate Group Group N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T) (A, G, C, or T) CH2 O C1C1 C4C4 C3C3 C2C2 5 Sugar Sugar(deoxyribose)

44 DNA - double helix P P P O O O P P P O O O G C TA

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