52 Metabolic ProcessesAnabolism- the building up of complex moleculesCatabolism- the breaking down of complex molecules
6The main components of a living cell are: CarbonHydrogenNitrogenOxygen-Phosphorus-Sulfur
7Inside every cell is a concentrated mixture of thousands of different macromolecules forming a variety of specialized structures that carry out cell functions, such as:energy productiontransportwaste disposalsynthesis (creation) of new moleculesstorage of genetic material.
8Organic Compounds Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules.
9Carbon (C) Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements)Usually with H, O, N, or CExample: C6H12O6 (sugar)
10Macromolecules Large organic molecules. Also called POLYMERS. Made up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS.Examples:1. Carbohydrates2. Lipids3. Proteins4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
111. Carbohydrates Small sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. Examples:A. monosaccharideB. disaccharideC. polysaccharide
121. Carbohydrates A. monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples: glucose (C6H12O6 blood sugar)deoxyriboseribosegalactose (milk sugar)fructose (honey)glucose
13B. disaccharide: two sugar unit Example: sucrose = glucose + fructose
14C. polysaccharide: many sugar units Examples: starch (bread, potatoes) glycogen (beef muscle)cellulose (lettuce, corn)chitin (exoskeletons)glucosecellulose
15The primary functions of carbohydrate macromolecules are to: provide and store energy.
162. Lipids General term for compounds which are not soluble in water. Lipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents.Remember: “stores the most energy”
185 functions of lipids:1. Long term energy storage (fat)2. Protection against heat loss (insulation)3. Protection against water loss & germs (oils & waxes)4. Chemical messengers(hormones & steroids)5. Major component of membranes (phospholipids)
19Triglycerides: composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. HH-C----OglycerolOC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=OC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=fatty acidsOC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=
20There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see on food labels: 1. Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad)2. Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good)OC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=saturatedOC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=unsaturated
213. Proteins (Polypeptides) Amino acids (the building blocks of protein)2 kinds of amino acidsessential & non-essential amino acidsEssential amino acids cannot be synthesized by our body & need to be obtained through our diet
35EnzymesEnzymes are proteins that help speed-up chemical reactions in the body.Enzymes are specific in their choosingEach enzyme has only one reaction it can help.
36Enzymes are always recycled when they perform their function. The specific enzyme can be used over and over again.The structure is what determines its function.High temperatures or changes in pH can affect the structure of an enzyme and make it unusable.This is called denaturation.
37The place where the substrate binds to an enzyme is called the active site. Enzymes and substrates fit together like a lock & key.
38Most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and pH. At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow.High temperatures or extremes of pH can irreversibly change the structure of proteins and alter their function.
394. Nucleic acidsNucleic acids (DNA and RNA) control cell activities by controlling protein synthesis
404. Nucleic acids Two types: 1. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA-double helix)2. ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand)Nucleic acidsare composed of long chains of nucleotides