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1 Macromolecules. 2 Topic/Do Topic: Macromolecule Do: Take down Cornell Notes. Write a 2 paragraph summary (10 sentences) of your understanding of the.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Macromolecules. 2 Topic/Do Topic: Macromolecule Do: Take down Cornell Notes. Write a 2 paragraph summary (10 sentences) of your understanding of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Macromolecules

2 2 Topic/Do Topic: Macromolecule Do: Take down Cornell Notes. Write a 2 paragraph summary (10 sentences) of your understanding of the lesson.

3 3 Look Up! Youll Never Know What Youll Learn

4 4 Organic Compounds CompoundsCARBON organicCompounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromoleculesorganic moleculesMacromolecules are large organic molecules.

5 5 Carbon (C) Carbon4 electronsCarbon has 4 electrons in outer shell. Carboncovalent bonds 4Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements). C, H, O or NUsually with C, H, O or N. Example:CH 4 (methane)Example:CH 4 (methane)

6 6 Macromolecules Large organic molecules.Large organic molecules. POLYMERSAlso called POLYMERS. MONOMERSMade up of smaller units, building blocks called MONOMERS. Examples:Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

7 7 Carbohydrates

8 8 Carbohydrates Small sugar moleculeslarge sugar moleculesSmall sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. Examples:Examples: A.monosaccharide B.disaccharide C.polysaccharide

9 9 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples: glucose (glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) deoxyribosedeoxyribose riboseribose FructoseFructose GalactoseGalactose

10 10 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: two sugar unit Examples: –Sucrose (glucose+fructose) –Lactose (glucose+galactose) –Maltose (glucose+glucose) glucoseglucose

11 11 Carbohydrates Polysaccharide: many sugar units Examples:starch (bread, potatoes) glycogen (beef muscle) cellulose (lettuce, corn) glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose cellulose

12 12 Lipids

13 13Lipids not soluble in waterGeneral term for compounds which are not soluble in water. are soluble in hydrophobic solventsLipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents. Hydrophilic – water-loving Hydrophobic – water-fearing Remember:stores the most energyRemember: stores the most energy Examples:1. FatsExamples:1. Fats 2. Phospholipids 3. Oils 4. Waxes 5. Steroid hormones 6. Triglycerides

14 14 Lipids Six functions of lipids: 1.Long term energy storage 2.Protection against heat loss (insulation) 3.Protection against physical shock 4.Protection against water loss 5.Chemical messengers (hormones) 6.Major component of membranes (phospholipids)

15 15 Lipids Triglycerides: c1 glycerol3 fatty acids Triglycerides: composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. (Looks like a letter E) H H-C----O H glycerol O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = fatty acids O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 =

16 16 Fatty Acids fatty acids There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see these on food labels: 1.Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad) 2.Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good) O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = saturated O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 - CH 3 = unsaturated

17 17 Proteins

18 18 Proteins (Polypeptides ) peptide bonds polypeptidesAmino acids (20 different kinds of aa) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides). Six functions of proteins:Six functions of proteins: 1.Storage:albumin (egg white) 2.Transport: hemoglobin 3.Regulatory:hormones 4.Movement:muscles 5.Structural:membranes, hair, nails 6.Enzymes:cellular reactions

19 19 Primary Structure peptide bonds (straight chains) – DRAW the structure below. Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds (straight chains) – DRAW the structure below. aa 1 aa2aa3aa4aa5aa6 Peptide Bonds Amino Acids (aa)

20 20 Nucleic Acids

21 21 Nucleic acids Two types:Two types: a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA- double helix) b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) Nucleic acids nucleotides dehydration synthesisNucleic acids are composed of long chains of nucleotides linked by dehydration synthesis.

22 22 Nucleic acids Nucleotides include:Nucleotides include: phosphate group pentose sugar (5-carbon) nitrogenous bases: adenine (A) thymine (T) DNA only uracil (U) RNA only cytosine (C) guanine (G)

23 23 Nucleotide – DRAW the structure below. O O=P-O OPhosphate Group Group N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T) (A, G, C, or T) CH2 O C1C1 C4C4 C3C3 C2C2 5 Sugar Sugar(deoxyribose)

24 24 DNA - double helix P P P O O O P P P O O O G C TA

25 25 RNA – Ribonucleic Acid helps the DNA in protein synthesis.

26 26 The End Write a 2-paragraph summary (10 sentences) of your understanding of the topic. You are THE BEST!


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