Presentation on theme: "1 Macromolecules. 2 Topic/Do Topic: Macromolecule Do: Take down Cornell Notes. Write a 2 paragraph summary (10 sentences) of your understanding of the."— Presentation transcript:
2 Topic/Do Topic: Macromolecule Do: Take down Cornell Notes. Write a 2 paragraph summary (10 sentences) of your understanding of the lesson.
3 Look Up! Youll Never Know What Youll Learn
4 Organic Compounds CompoundsCARBON organicCompounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromoleculesorganic moleculesMacromolecules are large organic molecules.
5 Carbon (C) Carbon4 electronsCarbon has 4 electrons in outer shell. Carboncovalent bonds 4Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements). C, H, O or NUsually with C, H, O or N. Example:CH 4 (methane)Example:CH 4 (methane)
6 Macromolecules Large organic molecules.Large organic molecules. POLYMERSAlso called POLYMERS. MONOMERSMade up of smaller units, building blocks called MONOMERS. Examples:Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
8 Carbohydrates Small sugar moleculeslarge sugar moleculesSmall sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. Examples:Examples: A.monosaccharide B.disaccharide C.polysaccharide
9 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples: glucose (glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) deoxyribosedeoxyribose riboseribose FructoseFructose GalactoseGalactose
10 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: two sugar unit Examples: –Sucrose (glucose+fructose) –Lactose (glucose+galactose) –Maltose (glucose+glucose) glucoseglucose
13Lipids not soluble in waterGeneral term for compounds which are not soluble in water. are soluble in hydrophobic solventsLipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents. Hydrophilic – water-loving Hydrophobic – water-fearing Remember:stores the most energyRemember: stores the most energy Examples:1. FatsExamples:1. Fats 2. Phospholipids 3. Oils 4. Waxes 5. Steroid hormones 6. Triglycerides
14 Lipids Six functions of lipids: 1.Long term energy storage 2.Protection against heat loss (insulation) 3.Protection against physical shock 4.Protection against water loss 5.Chemical messengers (hormones) 6.Major component of membranes (phospholipids)
15 Lipids Triglycerides: c1 glycerol3 fatty acids Triglycerides: composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. (Looks like a letter E) H H-C----O H glycerol O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = fatty acids O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 =
16 Fatty Acids fatty acids There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see these on food labels: 1.Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad) 2.Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good) O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = saturated O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 - CH 3 = unsaturated
18 Proteins (Polypeptides ) peptide bonds polypeptidesAmino acids (20 different kinds of aa) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides). Six functions of proteins:Six functions of proteins: 1.Storage:albumin (egg white) 2.Transport: hemoglobin 3.Regulatory:hormones 4.Movement:muscles 5.Structural:membranes, hair, nails 6.Enzymes:cellular reactions
19 Primary Structure peptide bonds (straight chains) – DRAW the structure below. Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds (straight chains) – DRAW the structure below. aa 1 aa2aa3aa4aa5aa6 Peptide Bonds Amino Acids (aa)
20 Nucleic Acids
21 Nucleic acids Two types:Two types: a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA- double helix) b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) Nucleic acids nucleotides dehydration synthesisNucleic acids are composed of long chains of nucleotides linked by dehydration synthesis.
22 Nucleic acids Nucleotides include:Nucleotides include: phosphate group pentose sugar (5-carbon) nitrogenous bases: adenine (A) thymine (T) DNA only uracil (U) RNA only cytosine (C) guanine (G)
23 Nucleotide – DRAW the structure below. O O=P-O OPhosphate Group Group N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T) (A, G, C, or T) CH2 O C1C1 C4C4 C3C3 C2C2 5 Sugar Sugar(deoxyribose)
24 DNA - double helix P P P O O O P P P O O O G C TA
25 RNA – Ribonucleic Acid helps the DNA in protein synthesis.
26 The End Write a 2-paragraph summary (10 sentences) of your understanding of the topic. You are THE BEST!