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End Show Slide 1 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ecology II - Cycles of Matter.

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Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ecology II - Cycles of Matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ecology II - Cycles of Matter

2 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 2 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Recycling in the Biosphere matter Recycling in the Biosphere Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently. Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.

3 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 3 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Water Cycle Water moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.

4 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 4 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles The Carbon Cycle Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen. Geochemical processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans.

5 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 5 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles CO 2 in Atmosphere Photosynthesis feeding Respiration Deposition Carbonate Rocks Deposition Decomposition Fossil fuel Volcanic activity Uplift Erosion Respiration Human activity CO 2 in Ocean Photosynthesis

6 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 6 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles The Nitrogen Cycle All organisms require nitrogen to make proteins. Although nitrogen gas (N 2 ) is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth, only certain types of bacteria can use this form directly. Such bacteria live in the soil and on the roots of plants called legumes. They convert nitrogen gas into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation. Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites.

7 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 7 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Once these products are available, producers can use them to make proteins. Consumers then eat the producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins. FYI: Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3.compoundnitrogenhydrogenformula (It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. )gaspungentodournutritionalfoodfertilizers Nutrient Cycles

8 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 8 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles Bacterial nitrogen fixation N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 Synthetic fertilizer manufacturer Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition excretion Atmospheric nitrogen fixation Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition Decomposition excretion NO 3 and NO 2

9 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 9 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia. The ammonia may be taken up again by producers. Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called denitrification. This process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again. Nutrient Cycles

10 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 10 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles The Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus is essential to organisms because it helps forms important molecules like DNA and RNA. Most phosphorus exists in the form of inorganic phosphate, a salt. Inorganic phosphate is released into the soil and water as sediments wear down. Eventually the phosphates will enter the ocean, where it is used by marine organisms.

11 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 11 of 33 Why it phosphorus is a concern: In water, phosphorus behaves as a fertilizer, accelerating plant and algae growth. When plants and algae die, bacteria consume oxygen that is dissolved in the water. When this happens, less oxygen is available for fish and aquatic life that need oxygen to survive. Excess phosphorus in drinking water is difficult to remove, and also can require an increase in treatment chemicals which adds cost. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

12 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 12 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Organic phosphate moves through the food web and to the rest of the ecosystem. Nutrient Cycles Ocean Land Organisms Sediments

13 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 13 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Limitation The primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate at which organic matter is created by producers. One factor that controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem is the amount of available nutrients.

14 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 14 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organism's growth. When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly, this substance is called a limiting nutrient. When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient—such as runoff from heavily fertilized fields—the result is often an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers. Why? Nutrient Limitation

15 End Show 3–3 Cycles of Matter Slide 15 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient—such as runoff from heavily fertilized fields— the result is often an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers. This result is called an algal bloom. Algal blooms Algal blooms can disrupt the equilibrium of an ecosystem. Why is that? See, Article Sabah, Malaysia (Red Algae bloom; where is?)Red Algae bloomwhere is Nutrient Limitation

16 End Show - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 16 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3

17 End Show Slide 17 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3 Transpiration is part of the a.water cycle. b.carbon cycle. c.nitrogen cycle. d.phosphorus cycle.

18 End Show Slide 18 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3 Carbon is found in the atmosphere in the form of a.carbohydrates. b.carbon dioxide. c.calcium carbonate. d.ammonia.

19 End Show Slide 19 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3 Biologists describe nutrients as moving through cycles because the substances a.start as simple organic forms that plants need. b.provide “building blocks” and energy that organisms need. c.are passed between organisms and the environment and then back to organisms. d.are needed by organisms to carry out life processes.

20 End Show Slide 20 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3 The only organisms that can convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form useful to living things are nitrogen-fixing a.plants. b.bacteria. c.detritivores. d.animals.

21 End Show Slide 21 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3 When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is a.runoff. b.algal death. c.algal bloom. d.less primary productivity.

22 End Show Slide 22 of 33 Resources: Pearson Prentice Hall DVD Holt Modern Biology dtd 10/15/2010 dtd 10/15/2010 oft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=&oehttp://www.google.com/search?q=sabah+malaysia&sourceid=ie7&rls=com.micros oft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=&oe= dtd 10/15/2010 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

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