Presentation on theme: "The New Nation Lessons Review Maps Maps Graphic Organizer"— Presentation transcript:
1The New Nation Lessons Review Maps Maps Graphic Organizer What causes a society to grow?Teacher NotesThe Big Idea: What causes a society to grow?The New NationUnit 5 The New Nation
2Lessons Review Maps Maps Graphic OrganizerGraphic OrganizerLesson 1Planning a GovernmentLesson 2United States ConstitutionLesson 3The Louisiana PurchaseLesson 4The War of 1812Lesson 5The Industrial RevolutionClick on a Lesson.Lesson 6The Age of Andrew JacksonLesson 7Texas and the War with MexicoLessons
3Planning a New Government Lesson 1VocabularyArticles of ConfederationarsenallegislatureReading SkillWhat problems did the government face after the Revolution?Draw ConclusionsTeacher NotesEssential Question: What problems did the government face after the Revolution?
4Planning a New Government What were the Articles of Confederation and why did they fail?They were the first plan of government for the U.S.They failed because each state was independent.printed their own moneypassed their own trade laws.What was the importance of the Northwest Ordinance?It said that an area became a territory when its population reached 5,000.A territory could apply for statehood when the population reached 60,000.Teacher NotesArticles of Confederation—money changed value between states.Merchants did not know which trade laws to follow.National government could not collect taxes.Had to ask states for money to pay large debts.Could not pay lawmakers or soldiers.Ordinance of 1787 or the Northwest Ordinance—plan for land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River called the Northwest TerritoryOhio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin became states under this ordinance.Pushed Native Americans off their land, which caused more fighting between Native Americans and colonists.
5Planning a New Government Why was Shays’s Rebellion important?It showed the Articles of Confederation had failed.The new government could not protect farmers from losing their lands.It also could not afford to send troops to stop the uprising.Teacher NotesShays’s Rebellion:Massachusetts raised taxes on property to pay state debts.Hundreds of farmers were unable to pay their taxes and lost their farms and landed in jail.Shays’s Rebellion was led by Daniel Shays to close courthouses and break debtors free from jail.Government had no money to send troops, so the state governor and other wealthy lawmakers had to pay a private militia.Many people wanted a national government strong enough to protect their property.Farmers wanted a government with the power to issue paper money that had value.
6Planning a New Government The Virginia PlanProposed by James MadisonCreate a national legislature with two houses:One elected by citizens based on a state’s populationOne composed of members chosen by the first houseThe Great CompromiseProposed by Roger ShermanA legislature with a House of Representatives based on a state’s populationA Senate with two senators from each stateTeacher NotesAt the Constitutional Convention, delegates created the plan for the U.S. government.Famous delegates included Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and James Madison (Father of the Constitution).The legislature was the most important part of government because it could make laws.Madison’s Virginia Plan created a national legislature with two houses.One house was elected by citizens (white men with property),based on a state’s population. This meant the larger states would have more power.Members of the second house were chosen by the first house.
7Planning a New Government What was the Three-Fifths Compromise and why was it proposed?It was an agreement among the delegates that every five enslaved people counted as three free people.The slave states would not gain too much voting power in the legislature.Teacher NotesGreat Compromise:Representatives would serve two years and be elected directly by the people.Senators would serve six-year terms and be chosen by state legislatures. This was later changed so people could elect senators directly.Almost half of the delegates owned enslaved workers and wanted them to be counted as part of the population. Many delegates disagreed because it would give too much power to states with enslaved people.In the Electoral College, the number of electoral votes for each state had was based on the number of its congressional representatives; the electoral votes would then be cast for the candidate chosen by the people in their state.Ben Franklin was the only Founder to sign the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris, and the Constitution.Seven people refused to sign the Constitution.
8United States Constitution Lesson 2Vocabularyfederal systemSupreme Courtratifybill of rightsamendmentWhat are important points to remember about the Constitution?Reading SkillDraw ConclusionsTeacher NotesEssential Question: What are important points to remember about the Constitution?
9United States Constitution First three articles explain how the U.S. government is organized.Article 1 – establishes a legislature called Congressmade up of a Senate and a House of Representativespower to make lawsArticle 2 – creates the office of the Presidentleader of the executive branchpower to enforce lawsTeacher NotesFederal system—national and state governments both make laws and collect taxes.State government controls local matters such as police services and public education.Constitution divided into separate parts called articles.Checks and balances keep one branch from gaining too much power.Congress has a check between the two houses: can pass legislation only if both houses pass exactly the same measure.Checks between branches:President can veto a bill.Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds vote in each house.Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional (judicial review).No branch can take powers given to another branch.Nine of the thirteen states had to approve (ratify) the Constitution.Article 3 – establishes a Supreme Courthighest court in the landpower to decide whether any law works against the Constitution
10United States Constitution What is the Bill of Rights?It is a statement of rights guaranteed by the government to the people.Consists of ten amendments written by James MadisonAfter addition of Bill of Rights, all original thirteen states ratified the Constitution.U.S. Constitution has 17 additional amendments.Amendments must be approved by two-thirds of the House and Senate and then by three-fourths of the states.Teacher NotesBill of Rights—statement of rights guaranteed by the government.The ten amendments written by James Madison and added to the Constitution.Amendments are changes to the Constitution.The first act of Congress was to pass the Bill of Rights.After the addition of the Bill of Rights, all original thirteen states ratified the Constitution.The Constitution now has 17 other amendments.Amendments have to be approved by two-thirds of the House and Senate and then by three-fourths of the states.
11United States Constitution System of Checks and BalancesThe system of keeping one branch from gaining too much powerLegislative branch:checks between the two housesHouse of Representatives and Senate must agree.Executive branch:President must sign a lawpower to vetoCongress can overrideJudicial branchSupreme Court has power to declare a law unconstitutional.judicial reviewTeacher NotesNo branch of the government can take powers given to another branch.The executive branch has a cabinet.George Washington’s cabinet included:Alexander Hamilton—Secretary of the Treasury (formed a plan for the economy)Thomas Jefferson—Secretary of State (handled affairs with other countries)Henry Knox—Secretary of War (took charge of the country’s defense)John Jay became the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
12The Louisiana Purchase Lesson 3VocabularypioneerimpressmentReading SkillHow did the United States expand across North America?Draw ConclusionsTeacher NotesEssential Question: How did the United States expand across North America?
13The Louisiana Purchase What were the effects of the Louisiana Purchase?Jefferson doubled the size of the U.S. for pennies an acre.Americans gained access to a major port.The land had abundant natural resources.Teacher NotesThe United States offered to buy New Orleans from the French for $10 million.French counter offered with the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million because they were trying to pay for a war against Great Britain.President Jefferson chose Merriwether Lewis to lead the Corps of Discovery.Lewis went with Clark to map the course of the Missouri River and find a land route to the Pacific Ocean.Jefferson also wanted information about the land, its resources, and the Native Americans who lived in the region.Journals of their discoveries filled nearly 5,000 pages.Sacagawea traveled with them as a guide and interpreter.
14The War of 1812 Vocabulary Reading Skill Lesson 4 War HawksEra of Good FeelingsAdams-Onís TreatyMonroe DoctrineHow did the War of 1812 affect Americans?Reading SkillDraw ConclusionsTeacher NotesEssential Question: How did the War of 1812 affect Americans?
15The War of 1812 Why did the War Hawks want war with Great Britain? Believed that they could conquer Canada and take control of whole continentAngry that British had helped Native AmericansWanted to protect American sailors from British impressmentWhy did the British burn Washington, D.C.?The British wanted to punish Americans for burning York.Teacher NotesDespite opposition from New England, War Hawks got approval to go to war.New England merchants wanted to settle problems peacefully because they depended on trade with Great Britain.Called the war “Mr. Madison’s War” after President James Madison.The American navy won important victories early in the war.Oliver Hazard Perry won the Battle of Lake Erie, which forced the British to retreat to Canada.American troops then invaded Canada and captured supplies in York, present-day Toronto, and burned the town.Burning of Washington, D.C.In 1814 British sent thousands of well-trained soldiers to invade the U.S. and attack Washington, D.C.Punishment for invading Canada and destroying York.Soldiers walked through the White House with muddy boots and ate dinner in the president’s dining room.
16The War of 1812 What was the Monroe Doctrine? The U.S. would not give Europeans the power to establish new colonies in the Americas.The U.S. would not interfere with existing colonies in the Americas or with European affairs.Why did the U.S. want to prevent new European colonies in the Americas?The U.S. wanted to be free from European influence.Teacher NotesMonroe DoctrinePresident James Monroe wanted to prevent new European colonies in the Americas.It was a way for the U.S. to oppose colonial power.
17The Industrial Revolution Lesson 5VocabularyIndustrial Revolutioncotton gininterchangeable partreapersteam engineHow did the Industrial Revolution change people’s lives?Reading SkillDraw ConclusionsTeacher NotesEssential Question: How did the Industrial Revolution change people’s lives?
18The Industrial Revolution What was the Industrial Revolution?It was a time when new machines and new ideas changed the way people worked, traveled, and lived.Cotton ginPower looms in textile millsInterchangeable partsMechanical plow and reaperSteam EngineErie CanalThe Iron HorseTeacher NotesAsk: How can inventions change lives?Important inventions:Cotton gin removed seeds from cotton and made cotton the most important cash crop in the South.More cotton in the South meant more textile mills (factory where workers turned the cotton into cloth) in the North.Power loom made the process of turning cotton into cloth much faster.Lowell, Mass., was built for textile mill workers to live.Employed mostly women who worked 12-hour days, six days a week, and lived on the grounds of the mill.Interchangeable parts—Eli Whitney made pieces in the same or standard sizes so they would fit a specific product.Guns, tools, and other products could be made faster and at a lower cost.Mechanical plow and the reaper made farming easier.Steam Engine produced more power than a team of horses and could pull heavier loads.Robert Fulton designed a steam engine boat that improved transportation.Erie Canal connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River by using a series of locks to raise and lower the water level.Made New York City the country’s largest and most important port.The steam engine locomotive— “iron horses” powered by a steam engine that soon became the main form of transportation in the U.S.Write About It!Explain how the Erie Canal helped New York grow.
19The Age of Andrew Jackson Lesson 6VocabularyUnionTrail of Tearsmanifest destinywagon traindiscriminationHow did the United States change during Andrew Jackson’s term?Reading SkillDraw ConclusionsTeacher NotesEssential Question: How did the United States change during Andrew Jackson’s term?
20The Age of Andrew Jackson Why did people move west?Start new livesFind open landBecome wealthyForced to move awayThe Indian Removal Act of 1831Native Americans had to moveIndian TerritoryArmy forced Cherokee to march 800 milesTrail of TearsOregon FeverManifest Destinywagon trainsTeacher NotesOffice of the president grew more powerful under Jackson’s presidency.He imposed a new federal tax on imported goods.The Indian Removal Act 1831 forced Native Americans to move to reservations located in present-day Oklahoma.Native Americans protested in court.Jackson refused to follow a court ruling allowing Native Americans to remain on their homelands.Oregon Fever—the desire to get a fresh start in the WestJourney took 6 months by wagon train, which offered protection against Native American attacks.
21The Age of Andrew Jackson Use clues from the text to make conclusions about the treatment of the Cherokee people.Text CluesConclusionThe Cherokee’s right to their land was guaranteed by treaty.Forcing the Cherokee to move was unjust and illegal.Jackson ignored a court ruling that the Cherokee should stay in Georgia.Teacher NotesThe Cherokee’s right to their land was guaranteed by treaty.Jackson ignored a court ruling that the Cherokee should stay in Georgia.About 4,000 Cherokee died on the Trail of Tears.Conclusion: Forcing the Cherokee to move was unjust and illegal.About 4,000 Cherokee died on the Trail of Tears.
22Texas and the War with Mexico Lesson 7VocabularyTreaty of Guadalupe HidalgoGold RushReading SkillHow did conflicts with Mexico change the United States?Draw ConclusionsTeacher NotesEssential Question: How did conflicts with Mexico change the United States?
23Texas and the War with Mexico Trouble in TexasBy 1835, 25,000 Americans settled in Mexico.Disliked Mexican lawsTexans attacked San Antonio.Took control of the AlamoSanta Anna, leader of Mexico, recaptured the Alamo.All Americans killed.General Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna.“Remember the Alamo!”Teacher NotesIn 1821 Mexico won independence from SpainTo keep the area (present-day Texas, New Mexico, and California) under Mexican control, the Mexican government offered land and Mexican citizenship to Americans who settled in Texas.Once settled, many Americans did not want to live in Mexico.Complained about Mexican laws.Wanted slavery, which was illegal in Mexico.Texans attacked and took control of the Alamo, lost it, and won it back.Texans voted to join the U.S. and adopted a constitution and made slavery legal.Congress felt that allowing Texas to join the union might lead to war with Mexico.Texas becomes an independent country—Republic of Texas or the Lone Star Republic.James Polk offered to buy the Mexican territories of California and New Mexico for $30 million. Mexico refused.Congress made Texas the 28th state even though Mexico still claimed it.Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to march through Texas to the Rio Grande, where fighting broke out.War was declared.Fighting continued until troops captured Mexico City.Mexico sold Texas to U.S. for $15 million.Write About It!Explain why both the United States and Mexico claimed Texas.
24Texas and the War with Mexico Use clues from the text to make conclusions about the Mexican War.Text CluesConclusionsMexico wanted to keep its western territories.Possible Conclusions:The United States was the aggressor in the war.The Mexican War helped the U.S. grow at a great cost.The U.S. was becoming a powerful nation.President Polk tried to buy land from Mexico.After President Polk sent troops to the Rio Grande, fighting broke out.When Texas became a state, Mexico still considered it part of its territory.Teacher NotesMexico wanted to keep its western territories.President Polk tried to buy land from Mexico.After President Polk sent troops to the Rio Grande, fighting broke out.When Texas became a state, Mexico still considered it part of its territory.After the war, the United States purchased most of its western states from Mexico.The war cost over 60,000 lives.Possible Conclusions:The United States was the aggressor in the war.The Mexican War helped the U.S. grow at a great cost.The U.S. was becoming a powerful nation.After the war, the United States purchased most of its western states from Mexico.The war cost over 60,000 lives.
25Texas and the War with Mexico The California Gold Rush1848: James Marshall discovered gold in California.Thousands of miners prospected for gold.So many people came searching for wealth, that it became known as the “Gold Rush.”1849: more than 80,000 people.“Forty-niners”1850: California became 31st state.Teacher NotesJames Marshall found gold in Sacramento.Sam Brannan heard about Marshall’s discovery. He bought all the picks and shovels he could find. Then he broke the news. He made a small fortune selling his picks and shovels to prospectors.Although thousands of miners came to search for gold, few people struck it rich.By May, 1849, more than 10,000 wagons had crossed the continent to California.Ask: What effect did the forty-niners have on California? (The population grew so rapidly that California had enough people to become a state.)
26ReviewWhat are the three branches of government and what does each branch do?Executive branch – enforces lawsLegislative branch – makes lawsJudicial branch – decides if laws are constitutionalWhat is the Bill of Rights?The Bill of Rights is a statement of rights guaranteed by the government to the people.AnswersExecutive branch – enforces lawsLegislative branch – makes lawsJudicial branch – decides if laws are constitutionalThe Bill of Rights is a statement of rights guaranteed by the government to the people.Checks and balances keep any one branch from gaining too much power.Why is there a system of checks and balances under the Constitution?Checks and balances keep any one branch from gaining too much power.
27ReviewWhat were some important inventions during the Industrial Revolution?Cotton Gin– removed seed from cotton and made cotton the most important cash crop in the South– made the process of cloth making much faster and large textile mills employed many people– pieces made in standard sizes meant products could be made faster and at a lower cost– made farming easier and fewer farmers were needed– produced more power than horses and could pull heavier loads– connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River with a series of locks to raise and lower the water level– railroads became the main form of transportationPower loomInterchangeable partsMechanical plow and reaperSteam engineAnswersCotton Gin – removed seed from cotton and made cotton the most important cash crop in the SouthPower loom – made the process of cloth making much faster and large textile mills employed many peopleInterchangeable parts – pieces made in standard sizes meant products could be made faster and at a lower costMechanical plow and reaper – made farming easier and fewer farmers were neededSteam engine – produced more power than horses and could pull heavier loadsErie Canal – connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River with a series of locks to raise and lower the water levelIron Horse – railroads became the main form of transportationErie CanalIron Horse
28Review What is manifest destiny? Manifest destiny is the belief that the United States had a right to expand its borders and claim new lands.What was the Trail of Tears?The Trail of Tears was the 800-mile westward march of the Cherokee people to the Indian Territory; 4,000 people died along the way.AnswersManifest destiny is the belief that the United States had a right to expand its borders and claim new lands.The Trail of Tears was the 800-mile westward march of the Cherokee people to the Indian Territory; 4,000 people died along the way.