## Presentation on theme: "MAINTAINING YOUR VEHICLE"— Presentation transcript:

How an Engine Works Your car has a Internal combustion gasoline engine. The engine runs on a mixture of gasoline and air.  The ideal mixture is 14.7 parts of  air to one part of gasoline (by weight.)  Since gas weighs much more than air, we are talking about a whole lot of air and a tiny bit of gas.   One part of gas that is completely vaporized into 14.7 parts of air can produce tremendous power when ignited inside an engine.

Your car Engine goes through four-strokes, which are Intake, Compression, Power and Exhaust. The piston travels down on the Intake stroke, up on the Compression stroke, down on the Power stroke and up on the Exhaust stroke.

Intake As the piston starts down on the Intake stroke, the intake valve opens and the fuel-air mixture is drawn into the cylinder (similar to drawing back the plunger on a hypodermic needle to allow fluid to be drawn into the chamber.) When the piston reaches the bottom of the intake stroke, the intake valve closes, trapping the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder.

Compression The piston moves up and compresses the trapped air fuel mixture that was brought in by the intake stroke. The amount that the mixture is compressed is determined by the compression ratio of the engine.  The compression ratio on the average engine is in the range of 8:1  to 10:1. This means that when the piston reaches the top of the cylinder, the air-fuel mixture is squeezed to about one tenth of its original volume.

Power The spark plug fires, igniting the compressed air-fuel mixture which produces a powerful expansion of the vapor.  The combustion process pushes the piston down the cylinder with great force turning the crankshaft to provide the power to propel the vehicle. Each piston fires at a different time, determined by the engine firing order. By the time the crankshaft completes two revolutions, each cylinder in the engine will have gone through one power stroke.

Exhaust With the piston at the bottom of the cylinder, the exhaust valve opens to allow the burned exhaust gas to be expelled to the exhaust system.   Since the cylinder contains so much pressure, when the valve opens, the gas is expelled with a violent force (that is why a vehicle without a muffler sounds so loud.) The piston travels up to the top of the cylinder pushing all the exhaust out before closing the exhaust valve in preparation for starting the four stroke process over again.

Oiling System Oil is the life-blood of the engine. An engine running without oil will last about as long as a human without blood. Oil is pumped under pressure to all the moving parts of the engine by an oil pump.  The oil pump is mounted at the bottom of the engine in the oil pan and is connected by a gear to either the crankshaft or the camshaft.  This way, when the engine is turning, the oil pump is pumping.  There is an oil pressure sensor near the oil pump that monitors pressure and sends this information to a warning light or a gauge on the dashboard.

Engine Cooling Internal combustion engines must maintain a stable operating temperature, not too hot and not too cold.  With the massive amounts of heat that is generated from the combustion process, if the engine did not have a method for cooling itself, it would quickly self-destruct.  Major engine parts can warp causing oil and water leaks and the oil will boil and become useless.

Ignition System

Under hood checks

Engine oil level Transmission fluid Brake fluid Power steering fluid Coolant (Antifreeze) level Battery Windshield washer solvent Belts & Hoses

Engine oil level To check the oil level, make sure that the engine is turned off, then find the engine oil dipstick and remove it. With a paper towel or rag, wipe off the end of the stick and notice the markings on it. You will usually see a mark for "Full" and another mark for "Add." Check your owners manual to be sure. Push the stick back into the tube until it seats then immediately pull it out to see the oil level. You should not add oil unless the level is below the "Add" mark and NEVER add oil to bring the level above the "Full" mark.

Transmission fluid Most automatic transmissions should be checked while the engine is running. Check your owners manual to be sure. Also make sure the car is on a level surface and fully warmed up. Pull the transmission dipstick out, wipe off the end and note the markings on the end of the stick. The usual markings are "Full" and "Add 1 pint." Push the stick into the tube until it seats, then immediately pull it out to see the fluid level. Transmission fluid should be pink or red in color with the look and consistency of cherry cough syrup.  If the fluid is a muddy brown or has a burnt smell, have it checked by a mechanic.

Brake fluid The brake fluid reservoir is under the hood right in front of the steering wheel. Most cars today have a transparent reservoir so that you can see the level without opening the cover. The brake fluid level will drop slightly as the brake pads wear out. This is a normal condition and you shouldn't worry about it. If the level drops noticeably over a short period of time or goes down to about two thirds full, have your brakes checked as soon as possible.

Power steering fluid The power steering fluid reservoir usually has a small dipstick attached to the cap. Remove the cap and check the fluid level. The level should not change more than the normal range on the stick. If you have to add fluid more than once or twice a year, then have the system checked for leaks. These systems are easily damaged if you drive while the fluid is very low. Another warning of low power steering fluid is a buzzing noise when you turn the steering wheel at slow speeds.

Coolant (Antifreeze) level Never open the radiator of a car that has just been running. The cooling system of a car is under high pressure with fluid that is usually hotter than boiling water. Look for the cooling system reserve tank, somewhere near the radiator. It is usually translucent white so you can see the fluid level without opening it. (Do not confuse it with the windshield washer tank). The reserve tank will have two marks on the side of it. "FULL HOT" and "FULL COLD." If the level frequently goes below "full cold" after adding fluid, you probably have a leak which should be checked as soon as possible.

Battery Most batteries today are "maintenance free" which simply means that you can't check the water level. This doesn't mean however, that there is nothing to check. The main things to check are the top of the battery which should be clean and dry, and the terminal connections which should be clean and tight. If the top of the battery continuously becomes damp or corroded soon after cleaning, then have the charging system and battery checked by your mechanic.

Windshield washer solvent Windshield washer solvent is readily available by the gallon in auto supply stores as well as supermarkets and it is cheap. It is fine to use with or without adding water but will clean better undiluted. Never dilute it during winter months to insure that it retains its antifreeze protection.

Belts & Hoses In most cases your mechanic can check your belts and hoses when you bring in the car for an oil change. However, if you get your oil changed by some quick lube type centers, belts and hoses may not be on their list of items to check in which case you're on your own. These checks are best done while the car is cold.

Oil Change Regular oil changes are the best way to ensure longer engine life. If you frequently take short trips where the car doesn't always completely warm up, then oil changes are even more important because acid and moisture buildup does not have a chance to burn off.  Some new engines normally run very hot and are very hard on oil. Even missing a single oil change on these cars can cause an engine to develop sludge which can cause engine damage in a car with as little as 15,000 miles on the odometer