2 CHAPTER 3 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Again, the study reference is CHAPMAN’S and the AUXILIARY study guide.
3 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES DEFINITION: BOTH DIESEL AND GAS; CHANGE OR CONVERT HEAT ENERGY INTO WORK BY BURNING FUEL IN A CLOSED COMBUSTION CHAMBER. THE PISTONS USE AN UP-AND-DOWN MOTION. THUS, THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS “RECIPROCATING” ENGINES.
4 IGNITION PRINCIPLES GASOLINE ENGINES Uses SPARK IGNITION SYSTEM”Called a “SPARK IGNITION ENGINE”.Fuel and air mixed in a carburetor – ( Injection chamber if fuel injected).Fuel drawn into cylinders.Fuel/air mixture ignited by electric spark from sparkplug(s).
5 IGNITION PRINCIPLES DIESEL ENGINES Engine takes atmospheric air and compresses it in cylinder head.Injects fuel into combustion space ( cylinder head)Fuel injectors. NO carburetorsRequire extremely CLEAN fuel to properly igniteCompression heating ignites fuelNO SPARK PLUGS
6 OPERATING CYCLEAll reciprocating engines have definite operating cycleEither 2-Stroke or 4-StrokeSTROKE: Up or Down movement of pistonEach PISTON completes 2 strokes for each revolution of the crankshaft.
7 OPERATING CYCLE FOUR STROKE (CYCLE) SLIDE NO. 5OPERATING CYCLE FOUR STROKE (CYCLE)Each piston goes through 4-strokesCrankshaft has 2 revolutions / one cycleOne power stroke per 2 revolutions of crank shaft
8 THE OPERATING CYCLE 4-STROKES INTAKECOMPRESSIONPOWEREXHAUST
9 OPERATING CYCLE INTAKE STROKE Intake valve open.Exhaust valve closed.PISTON: Moving DOWN.FUEL/AIR MIXTURE: Drawn IN through intake valve.
10 OPERATING CYCLE COMPRESSION STROKE Both INTAKE and EXHAUST valves CLOSED.PISTON moving UP.Fuel/air mixture is COMPRESSED.Ignition Spark and Compression heating ignites mixture.
11 OPERATING CYCLE POWER STROKE INTAKE and EXHAUST valves are CLOSEDPISTON moving DOWNCRANKSHAFT TURNS.POWER stroke only time power is translated to crankshaft.
12 OPERATING CYCLE EXHAUST STROKE EXHAUST valve OPENINTAKE valve CLOSEDPISTON moving UPTHIS ENDS THE 4-STROKE CYCLEThe piston immediately starts down again and the cycle process starts over.
13 OPERATING CYCLE TWO STROKE DIESEL ENGINES ARE MOSTLY TWO STROKEGASOLINE ENGINES MOSTLY LIMITED TO OUTBOARDSHAS ONE COMPRESSION AND ONE POWER STROKE
14 OPERATING CYCLE TWO STROKE (DIESEL) ONE power stroke for each revolution of the crankshaftTWICE as many power strokes as in the four-stroke engine.Cylinder has exhaust valve but NO INTAKE VALVE.Air comes in through PORTS in cylinder wall2-STROKE DIESELS GIVE EXCELLENT SERVICE
15 FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS UNIT INJECTOR and COMMON RAIL UNIT INJECTOR: Cylinder and plunger in cylinder head, sprays or squirts fuel into combustion chamber, for ignition. Fuel is INDUCTED from fuel tank to fuel injectors under pressure from a pump.COMMON RAIL: Most commonly used. One pump for all cylinders. Fuel under pressure from tank to cylinder.DRAWBACKS: System must be purged of all air until only fuel comes out. Time consuming, awkward and messy.
16 CARBURETORA device used to send a fine spray of fuel into a moving stream of air through the intake valves into the combustion chamber in the cylinder head of the engine.On gasoline engines, used to control the fuel/air mixture.
17 OPERATING CYCLE COMPRESSION RATIOS With compression ratio in diesel of 14:1, cylinder head temperature ~ 1000ºF. This heat ignites the fuel mixture without the spark plug ignition.Diesel compression ration are close to 14: 1 to 16: 1Gas compression ratios are close to 4: 1` to 8: 1
18 Includes the CYLINDERS, PISTONS, CONNECTING RODS AND CRANKSHAFT POWER SYSTEMIncludes the CYLINDERS, PISTONS, CONNECTING RODS AND CRANKSHAFT
19 POWER SYSTEM CYLINDERS – PISTONS - CRANKSHAFTS PISTONS: Move up and down in the cylinder; attached to the crankshaft and transmits power to the crankshaft .CYLINDERS: Cast in a single engine block with a hardened sleeve alloy sleeve to reduce wear.CRANKSHAFT: Changes the reciprocating motion of the piston and rods into rotary motion of the crankshaft which turns the propeller.
20 POWER SYSTEM VALVE and CAMSHAFT VALVES: Opened by a CAMSHAFT which is driven by a CRANKSHAFT.Let fresh air in. Allow combustion gasses to vacate.CAMSHAFT: Changes rotary to intermittent reciprocating motion.
21 POWER SYSTEM AIR 4-STROKE (Cycle): Air enters INTAKE VALVE. 2-Stroke (Cycle): Air enters PORTS in cylinder wall.
22 POWER SYSTEM LUBRICATION VITAL TO THE HEALTH OF THE ENGINEDelivers oil to moving parts to assist in engine cooling and reducing friction.Uses a PUMP and FILTER to cleanse and deliver
23 COOLING SYSTEM WATER and AIR WATER: Holding tank, circulating pump and radiator to get rid of the heat in the water.Both SEA and FRESH water are used.FRESH water used with self-contained system.SEA water straight from the environment.
24 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMSGENERATOR/ALTERNATOR: Produces the electrical current to operate the vessel’s system and charge the battery.VOLTAGE REGULATOR: Controls the voltage from the generator/alternatorCUT OUT: Keeps the battery from discharging through the alternator/generator at low speeds.STARTER: An electric motor. Diesel may have separate starter motor.Battery: Diesels require TWICE the power of gas engines.Wiring harness: Carries the electrical current.
26 IGNITION SYSTEM COMPONENTS IGNITION COIL: The generated power source (FOR THE SPARK IN THE SPARK PLUG)MECHANICAL BREAKER(POINTS): Break the current at proper timeCONDENSER: Prevents “arcing” when the points are open.DISTRIBUTOR: Serves as a “selector switch” to distribute the current to the individual spark plugs (gas engine only)SPARK PLUG(S): ( Gasoline engines only)Provided the “fire” to ignite the fuel in the combustion chamber. (Spark comes from the COIL, NOT the battery)
29 TROUBLE SHOOTING GAS ENGINES REQUIRE: 1. CORRECT FUEL-AIR MIXTURE 2. GOOD COMPRESSION3. GOOD SPARKDIESEL ENGINES REQUIRE:1. CORRECT FUEL PRESSURE2. HIGH COMPRESSION3. NO AIR IN FUEL LINE(S)
30 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO.1All reciprocating engines have a definite cycle of operation and __________________operate on either a 2-stroke or 4-stroke cycle.the number of cycles depends on the number of cylinders.the 2-stroke cycle is used only in diesel engines since 4-stroke cycle is required for proper function of a gasoline engine.the number of valves used for exhaust determine the operating cycle.
31 REVIEW QUESTIONSAll reciprocating engines have a definite cycle of operation and ________________a. operate on either a 2-stroke or 4-stroke cycle.
32 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 2 2. The cam shaft_____________________ a. drives the propeller.b. carries cams that are usually square in shape.c. is used to rotate the cams that open the valves.d. changes reciprocating motion to rotary motion .
33 REVIEW QUESTIONS 2. The cam shaft ______________________ c. is used to rotate the cams that open the valves.
34 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 33. Diesel engines have high compression ratios, in the range of 16:1 to 20:1, in order to_________a. easily exhaust heavy diesel fuel.b. provide maximum power in the intake stroke.c. compress air to generate heat for fuel ignition.d. assist the entrance of fuel from the carburetor.
35 REVIEW QUESTIONS3. Diesel engines have high compression ratios, in the range of 16:1 to 20:1 in order to______________c. compress air to generate heat for fuel ignition
36 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 4 4. A 2-stroke engine______________ a. has a compression and a power stroke.b. is only used in diesel enginesc. has twice the power in very large gasoline enginesd. is so designated because there is a cycle of 2-strokes between the opening and closing of the exhaust valvesof each cylinder.
37 REVIEW QUESTIONS 4. A 2-stroke engine________________ a. has a compression and a power stroke.
38 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 5 5. In a diesel engine, fuel__________________ a. is injected directly into the cylinder or combustion chamberb. is mixed with air, then injected into the cylinderc. is also used for lubricationd. consumption is constant at all speeds
39 REVIW QUESTIONS 5. In a diesel engine, fuel ________________ a. is injected directly into the cylinder or combustion chamber.
40 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 66. In a gasoline engine the fuel-air mixture ratio is controlled by the _________a. throttleb. carburetorc. intake valved. fuel pump
41 REVIEW QUESTIONS6. In a gasoline engine the fuel-air mixture ratio is controlled by the ____________________b. carburetor
42 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 7 7. Lubricating oil in engines_______ a. is used for ignition and for friction reductionb. is used only to lubricate the bearings and bushingsc. is always under constant pressured. is used to reduce friction and increase cooling.
43 REVIEW QUESTIONS 7. Lubricating oil in engines ______________ d. is used to reduce friction and increase cooling
44 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 88. Which of the following groups of items are common to both diesel and 4-cycle gasoline engines?a. valves, carburetor and fuel pumpsb. valves, pistons and spark plugsc. valves, cylinders and fuel pumpsd. valves, distributor and carburetor
45 REVIEW QUESTIONS8. Which of the following groups of items are common to both the diesel and 4-cycle gasoline engine?c. valves, cylinders and fuel pump
46 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 99. The primary circuit of the ignition system for gasoline engines includes the ________a. distributor and breaker pointsb. battery and spark plugsc. ignition coil and breaker pointsd. ignition coil and distributor
47 REVIEW QUESTIONS9. The primary circuit of the ignition system for gasoline engines includes the _____________c. ignition coil and breaker points
48 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 1010. The high voltage that produces the spark in the spark plug in a gasoline engine is produced in the _____________________a. batteryb. condenserc. breaker pointsd. ignition coil
49 REVIEW QUESTIONS10. The high voltage that produces the spark in spark plug in a gasoline engine is produced in the ___________________d. ignition coil