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Chapter 24 B Labor Unions and Strikes. Positive and Negative Effects of Unionism Positive: (1)Standard of living is higher (2)Jobs are available Negative:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 B Labor Unions and Strikes. Positive and Negative Effects of Unionism Positive: (1)Standard of living is higher (2)Jobs are available Negative:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24 B Labor Unions and Strikes

2 Positive and Negative Effects of Unionism Positive: (1)Standard of living is higher (2)Jobs are available Negative: (1)Rise in immigration (cheap wages) (2)Job competition (nativism rises) *Union: a group of workers that fight for a common cause *Collective Bargaining: (1) (2)

3 Employers “controlling” Unions / Factors that LIMIT the success of Labor Unions Yellow Dog Contracts / Ironclad Oaths– swearing an oath they will NOT join a Union Blacklist – if you are part of or leader of a union against the productivity of a business, you are placed on this list / difficult for you to get a job Lockout: owner tells the employees not to bother showing up until they agree to a pay cut Scabs: Strikebreakers (hired to continue economy of business while strikers are not working) Company Towns (used by: – *SCRIP* = town money used at town store – Given “EASY CREDIT”…thus keeping workers in debt and can’t get out! Interstate Commerce: a company claims strikers are affecting interstate commerce and the federal government comes running!

4 Early Labor Unions (Post Civil War) National Labor Union (NLU) 1866 – refused African Americans as members Skilled and unskilled (Trade unionism) Leader: William Sylvis Tactics: Lobbied Congress, not the Employers Used *Arbitration (settled by a mediator / not injunction (federal government) MAIN LEGACY: 8 hours a day (Originally pushed by Populist…later adopted by Democrats)

5 Knights of Labor Began in secrecy, and then publically emerged in 1882 Beliefs: (1) EQUALITY = Equal pay for equal work (2) ACCEPTED EVERYONE…(women and African Americans) / “skilled AND unskilled” Leader: Terrence Powderly (3) DID NOT USE STRIKES – refusal to work, as a LAST resort (favored non-violence) (4) Practiced Arbitration “Injury to one is the concern of all”

6 Haymarket Square Riot Chicago, 1886 Anarchists call for change! Before: American public supported the Labor Movement After: American public “turned” on the Labor Movement due to: VIOLENCE! Outcome: (1) KOL were blamed for the intermingled anarchists’ regime against the federal government (2) Governor John P. Atgeld “pardoned” the sentenced anarchists (unpopular and cost him reelection)

7 The AF of L (American Federation of Labor) Leader: Samuel Gompers (1886) Main agenda: USE STRIKES ALL THE TIME Membership: Housed ONLY skilled workers. – Justification: unskilled laborers would weaken the Union Labor Day (1894) granted, ironically, workers a day off of work

8 American Railway Union (ARU) / Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Leader - EUGENE V. DEBS (SOCIALIST) *STRIKES WERE USED! “The Strike is the weapon of the oppressed” Eugene V. Debs

9 Socialism and I.W.W Socialism – an economic system in which the government controls business and property / less extreme version of communism Individuals do not work for themselves, but live in corporation of one another Purpose: Overthrow Capitalism Pro: total equality regardless of physical differences Con: hard workers get no support “EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH” INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD (IWW) ****************Example of Socialist Union********************* Formed in 1905 and used through WWI Mostly Unskilled workers Leader: Eugene V. Debs Nickname: Wobblies Used STRIKES….all the time! (USED VIOLENCE) * Socialist Unions – EUGENE V. DEBS!!!!!!!!

10 Women Organize Fighting for: Better working conditions Equality End of child labor ****MAIN LEADER: MARY HARRIS JONES (MOTHER) To expose the cruelties of child labor – Mary Harris Jones led a march of 80 mill children to the home of President Teddy Roosevelt….this crusade influenced the passage of Child Labor Laws

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13 Triangle Shirtwaste Factory Fire March 25, 1911 (New York City) Oil-drenched machines caught on fire! (conditions) Company locked all of the doors *(Crime / force) 146 women died (from fire or jumping) MAJOR EFFECT/ Public Reaction: a task force was set up to study working conditions of many industries in New York * spurred the growth of improved factory conditions and safety standards

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