2Positive and Negative Effects of Unionism Standard of living is higherJobs are availableNegative:Rise in immigration (cheap wages)Job competition (nativism rises)*Union: a group of workers that fight for a common cause*Collective Bargaining:(1)(2)
3Employers “controlling” Unions / Factors that LIMIT the success of Labor Unions Yellow Dog Contracts / Ironclad Oaths– swearingan oath they will NOT join a UnionBlacklist – if you are part of or leader of a union against the productivity of a business, you are placed on this list / difficult for you to get a jobLockout: owner tells the employees not to bother showing up until they agree to a pay cutScabs: Strikebreakers (hired to continue economy ofbusiness while strikers are not working)Company Towns (used by:*SCRIP* = town money used at town storeGiven “EASY CREDIT”…thus keeping workers in debt and can’t get out!Interstate Commerce: a company claims strikers are affecting interstate commerce and the federal government comes running!
4Early Labor Unions (Post Civil War) National Labor Union (NLU) 1866 –refused African Americans as membersSkilled and unskilled (Trade unionism)Leader: William SylvisTactics:Lobbied Congress, not the EmployersUsed *Arbitration (settled by a mediator / not injunction (federal government)MAIN LEGACY: 8 hours a day (Originally pushed by Populist…later adopted by Democrats)
5Knights of Labor Began in secrecy, and then publically emerged in 1882 Beliefs:(1) EQUALITY = Equal pay for equal work(2) ACCEPTED EVERYONE…(women and African Americans) / “skilled AND unskilled”Leader: Terrence Powderly(3) DID NOT USE STRIKES – refusal to work, as a LAST resort (favored non-violence)(4) Practiced Arbitration“Injury to one is the concern of all”
6Haymarket Square Riot Chicago, 1886 Anarchists call for change! Before: American public supported the Labor MovementAfter: American public “turned” on the Labor Movement due to: VIOLENCE!Outcome:(1) KOL were blamed for the intermingled anarchists’ regime against the federal government(2) Governor John P. Atgeld “pardoned” the sentenced anarchists (unpopular and cost him reelection)
7The AF of L (American Federation of Labor) Leader: Samuel Gompers (1886)Main agenda: USE STRIKES ALL THE TIMEMembership: Housed ONLY skilled workers.Justification: unskilled laborers would weaken the UnionLabor Day (1894) granted, ironically, workers a day off of work
8American Railway Union (ARU) / Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Leader - EUGENE V. DEBS (SOCIALIST)*STRIKES WERE USED!“The Strike is the weapon of the oppressed” Eugene V. Debs
9Socialism and I.W.WSocialism – an economic system in which the government controls business and property / less extreme version of communismIndividuals do not work for themselves, but live in corporation of one anotherPurpose: Overthrow CapitalismPro: total equality regardless of physical differencesCon: hard workers get no support“EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH”INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD (IWW)****************Example of Socialist Union*********************Formed in 1905 and used through WWIMostly Unskilled workersLeader: Eugene V. DebsNickname: WobbliesUsed STRIKES….all the time! (USED VIOLENCE)* Socialist Unions – EUGENE V. DEBS!!!!!!!!
10Women Organize Fighting for: Better working conditions Equality End of child labor****MAIN LEADER: MARY HARRIS JONES (MOTHER)To expose the cruelties of child labor – Mary Harris Jones led a march of 80 mill children to the home of President Teddy Roosevelt….this crusade influenced the passage of Child Labor Laws
13Triangle Shirtwaste Factory Fire March 25, 1911 (New York City)Oil-drenched machines caught on fire! (conditions)Company locked all of the doors *(Crime / force)146 women died (from fire or jumping)MAJOR EFFECT/ Public Reaction: a task force was set upto study working conditions of many industries in New York* spurred the growth of improved factory conditions andsafety standards