Tools of Management Scabs - workers hired to replace those who went on strike Pinkertons – detectives hired to report on efforts to unionize and to put a stop to it. Yellowdog Contracts - contracts a worker had to sign to get a job in which he agrees NOT to join a union Blacklisting – putting out negative information on you so no other company will hire you Lockout – Businesses literally locked their doors
Cont Court Injunctions – court orders to return to work Open shop- a business where no one had to join a union and anyone could work- this is the opposite of a “closed shop” where a person MUST be a union member to work there
Tools of Labor Sympathy demonstrations – other businesses would walk off their jobs in support of a striking union Closed Shops- businesses that required you be a union member to get a job there Strikes- walking off your job and refusing to work until management agrees to your demands
Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly The first organized labor union 1869
Knights of Labor Knights of Labor trade card For skilled labor only
Goals of the Knights of Labor ù Eight-hour workday. ù Workers’ cooperatives. ù Worker-owned factories. ù Abolition of child and prison labor. ù Increased circulation of greenbacks. ù Equal pay for men and women. ù Safety codes in the workplace. ù Prohibition of contract foreign labor. ù Abolition of the National Bank.
Anarchists Meet on the Lake Front in 1886 This proved to be the downfall of the Knights of Labor because it made people think the Anarchists And Socialists were behind the union
Haymarket Riot (1886) Chicago Illinois Haymarket Riot (1886) Chicago Illinois McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.
The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers
How the AF of L Would Help the Workers ù Catered to the skilled worker. ù Represented workers in matters of national legislation. ù Maintained a national strike fund. ù Evangelized the cause of unionism. ù Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. ù Mediated disputes between management and labor. ù Pushed for closed shops.
Homestead Steel Strike (1892) The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers Homestead Steel Works
Homestead Steel Strike At the steel plant owned by Andrew Carnegie He brought in Pinkerton Agency detectives to try to end it Had enough money to wait them out until they had to go back to work in order to care for their families 2 people killed Significant to the labor movement because it hampered unionization until the 1940s – no one wanted to risk organizing a union.
Attempted Assassination! Henry Clay Frick Alexander Berkman
A “Company Town”: Pullman, IL A “Company Town”: Pullman, IL
Pullman Strike Occurred in 1894 Company laid people off and cut pay but refused to lower rents When the Panic was over and people went back to work the company refused to restore the pay to the pre-Panic level The workers called for a strike The strike was organized by Eugene V. Debs the leader of the American Railway Union
The Socialists Eugene V. Debs was a socialist who began the American Railway Union. He believed that the people should control the means of production and things should be distributed fairly and workers should not be taken advantage of. He ran for president 5 times but always lost