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Labor In The Late 1800s Labor Force Distribution 1870-1900.

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Presentation on theme: "Labor In The Late 1800s Labor Force Distribution 1870-1900."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Labor In The Late 1800s

3 Labor Force Distribution

4 The Changing American Labor Force

5 Child Labor

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7 Labor Unrest:

8 The Molly Maguires (1875) Irish Workers James McParland

9 Management vs. Labor “Tools” of Management “Tools” of Labor “scabs” P. R. campaign Pinkertonslockoutblacklisting yellow-dog contracts court injunctions open shop  boycotts  sympathy demonstrations  informational picketing  closed shops  organized strikes  “wildcat” strikes

10 A Striker Confronts a SCAB!

11 Tools of Management Scabs - workers hired to replace those who went on strike Pinkertons – detectives hired to report on efforts to unionize and to put a stop to it. Yellowdog Contracts - contracts a worker had to sign to get a job in which he agrees NOT to join a union Blacklisting – putting out negative information on you so no other company will hire you Lockout – Businesses literally locked their doors

12 Cont Court Injunctions – court orders to return to work Open shop- a business where no one had to join a union and anyone could work- this is the opposite of a “closed shop” where a person MUST be a union member to work there

13 Tools of Labor Sympathy demonstrations – other businesses would walk off their jobs in support of a striking union Closed Shops- businesses that required you be a union member to get a job there Strikes- walking off your job and refusing to work until management agrees to your demands

14 Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly The first organized labor union 1869

15 Knights of Labor Knights of Labor trade card For skilled labor only

16 Goals of the Knights of Labor ù Eight-hour workday. ù Workers’ cooperatives. ù Worker-owned factories. ù Abolition of child and prison labor. ù Increased circulation of greenbacks. ù Equal pay for men and women. ù Safety codes in the workplace. ù Prohibition of contract foreign labor. ù Abolition of the National Bank.

17 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

18 Anarchists Meet on the Lake Front in 1886 This proved to be the downfall of the Knights of Labor because it made people think the Anarchists And Socialists were behind the union

19 Haymarket Riot (1886) Chicago Illinois Haymarket Riot (1886) Chicago Illinois McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.

20 The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers

21 How the AF of L Would Help the Workers ù Catered to the skilled worker. ù Represented workers in matters of national legislation. ù Maintained a national strike fund. ù Evangelized the cause of unionism. ù Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. ù Mediated disputes between management and labor. ù Pushed for closed shops.

22 Homestead Steel Strike (1892) The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers Homestead Steel Works

23 Homestead Steel Strike At the steel plant owned by Andrew Carnegie He brought in Pinkerton Agency detectives to try to end it Had enough money to wait them out until they had to go back to work in order to care for their families 2 people killed Significant to the labor movement because it hampered unionization until the 1940s – no one wanted to risk organizing a union.

24 Attempted Assassination! Henry Clay Frick Alexander Berkman

25 Big Corporate Profits!

26 A “Company Town”: Pullman, IL A “Company Town”: Pullman, IL

27 Pullman Strike Occurred in 1894 Company laid people off and cut pay but refused to lower rents When the Panic was over and people went back to work the company refused to restore the pay to the pre-Panic level The workers called for a strike The strike was organized by Eugene V. Debs the leader of the American Railway Union

28 The Socialists Eugene V. Debs was a socialist who began the American Railway Union. He believed that the people should control the means of production and things should be distributed fairly and workers should not be taken advantage of. He ran for president 5 times but always lost

29 Pullman Cars A Pullman porter

30 The Hand That Will Rule the World  One Big Union

31 International Workers of the World (“Wobblies”)

32 Mother Jones: “The Miner’s Angel”  Mary Harris.  Organizer for the United Mine Workers.  Founded the Social Democratic Party in  One of the founding members of the I. W. W. in 1905.

33 Lawrence, MA Strike: 1912

34 The “Formula” unions + violence + strikes + socialists + immigrants = anarchists

35 Labor Union Membership

36 The Rise & Decline of Organized Labor


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