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The Labor Movement Chapter 5 Section 4.

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Presentation on theme: "The Labor Movement Chapter 5 Section 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Labor Movement Chapter 5 Section 4

2 Seamstresses 12 Hour Days, 6 days a week

3 Steel Mills 7 Day work week, no sick leave, no vacation

4 Railroads 1890: 1 in 300 workers would die

5 Women and Children 1890: 4 million women working 1920: 8 million
Children earned $.27 per day ($6.47) Men made $498 per year ($7,100 today) Women made $269 per year ($6,400 today)

6 Deflation The value of the dollar increases
One dollar buys more products Deflation in late 19th century resulted in employers cutting wages. Workers began to unionize

7 National Labor Union First large scale national labor union
Founded by iron worker William Sylvis 300 Locals in 13 states Sylvis wanted to admit women and African-Americans, but Locals refused

8 Knights of Labor Uriah Stevens: 1868 Focused on Industrial Labor
Membership open to everyone Advocated arbitration as opposed to strikes-3rd party helps workers come to agreement with management

9 Craft Unionism and Samuel Gompers
Craft Unions included only skilled workers but often from many industries American Federation of Labor Founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers Pushed for closed shops -all workers were in the union

10 Industrial Unionism and Eugene Debs
Industrial Unionism: all workers in one industry, skilled and unskilled, form a union Eugene Debs formed the American Railway Union, the first true industrial union They saw minor successes

11 Socialism and the IWW Socialism: economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth Industrial Workers of the World: Wobblies

12 The Great Strike of 1877 Baltimore and Ohio RR workers strike in protest of wage cuts The strike eventually spread to a national level 50,000 miles of railroads stopped for a week Resulted in nation wide riots President Hayes sent troops in to stop the strike RR strike that was very violent and spread nationwide

13 The Haymarket Affair May 3, 1886: Police kill a striker at the McCormick Harvester factory May 4, 1886: 1,200 people gather in Haymarket Square to protest At 10 o’clock, the crowd was leaving due to rain

14 The Haymarket Affair Cont’d.
170 Policemen assemble at a nearby train station and marched into the square A bomb was thrown at the police and they opened fire



17 The Haymarket Aftermath
7 Policemen killed Several strikers killed (exact number unknown) 3 speakers and 8 radicals arrested 4 hanged, 1 killed himself in jail

18 The Homestead Strike Carnegie Steel Plant in Homestead, PA
Henry Clay Frick: company president Announced a wage cut on July 6, 1892 A strike ensued

19 Pinkertons

20 The Homestead Strike Cont’d.
3 detectives and 6 strikers killed Strikers closed the plant until July 12 The National Guard was called in and the violence stopped The strike continued until November when the union caved in.

21 The Pullman Strike Built train cars in Pullman, Illinois
Workers went on strike when he lowered wages but not rent

22 The Pullman Strike Cont’d.
Strike spread nationwide ARU got involved, shut down train service Military called in to break strike

23 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
March 25, 1911-huge fire in factory in NYC 145 workers died New York set up a task force to inspect factories established fire codes, 54 hour workweek for women and minors no Sunday work and no one under 14 could work



26 Anti-union Actions Owners refused to negotiate with strikers
forbade union meetings, fired members Yellow dog contracts-said worker would not join a union or strike Turned Sherman Anti-trust Act against unions Lockout-refused to allow union members on their property

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