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Big Business & Labor, 6.3 continued

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1 Big Business & Labor, 6.3 continued
Fewer Control More Public Opinion: Social Darwinism; Businesses will regulate themselves to succeed! Monopolies allowed to grow Rockefeller & Robber Barons- buys companies (drives out of business) Forms ‘Trusts’ Trustees control all companies like one corporation

2 Sherman Antitrust Act - 1890
Made it illegal to form a trust that interfered w/ trade. Supreme Ct stops 7/8 law suits Trusts & Monopolies allowed to grow

3 Boom Bypassed South Still recovering from Civil War No money
North owned 90% stock in Southern railroads South stays agricultural

4 Labor Unions! Long hours- 6-7 day week; 12-14 hr days Dangerous work
No vacation, sick leave If injured; fired Dangerous work Dirty, cramped factories; poorly lit Dangerous, faulty equipment 2,000+ killed per mo in factories in 80s Most women, children Wages low- by piece, or: Women: $267 yr Men: $498 yr Carnegie: $23 mill; tax free

5 Early unions National Labor Union (NLU)- 1866 Knights of Labor – 1869
Got 8 hr day – for gov workers Tried to merge unions Knights of Labor – 1869 Open to all workers For 8 hr day; equal pay Avoided strikes

6 Unions diverge Craft unions Industrial Unions Samuel Gompers
American Federation of Labor (A.F. of L) Used strikes to improve conditions, hours, wages , average wages rose $ $24 per week Hours fell from 54 hrs to 49 per week Industrial Unions Eugene V Debs Skilled & unskilled

7 IWW: “Workers of the world, unite!”
Debs and others turned to Socialism Industrial Workers of the World -1905 Wobblies Big Bill Haywood Included miners, lumberers, etc Included African Americas

8 Strikes get violent Great Strike of 1877 Haymarket Affair - 1886
B & O RR.. Spread to other RRs; Pres. Hayes ordered it to stop Haymarket Affair 3,000 gather in Chicago to protest police brutality Police arrive; bomb thrown 7 police & many workers died in riots 8 arrested; 4 hanged, 1 suicide Public turns against unions

9 strikes Homestead strike- 1892 Pullman Strike- 1894
Carnegie steel plant Strikers fought Pinkerton Detectives Plant closed until Nat’l guard reopened Steelworkers won’t reorganize for 45 yrs Pullman Strike- 1894 Half workers laid off Rest got 30-50% pay cuts Strike turned violent- strikebreakers & fed troops Debs jailed

10 Women Barred from most unions
Some organizers fight for equal pay & to end child labor Mary Harris Jones Organized for unions Death threats Jailed with coal miners Called: “Mother Jones” Marched 80 injured mill children to Pres Roosevelt

11 Triangle Shirt Waist fire
1911- factory in NYC Fire spreads through factory; oil soaked rags- exits locked One faulty fire escape collapsed 146 women died Public outrage forced improved conditions

12 Management & Gov pressure
Management refused to recognize unions Forbade union meetings Fired union members Forced workers to sign ‘yellow dog contracts’ Courts used Sherman Antitrust Act against labor unions


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