Presentation on theme: "The Labor Movement The Rise of Unions CHAPTER 20 SECTION 4."— Presentation transcript:
1The Labor MovementThe Rise of UnionsCHAPTER SECTION 4
2By the late 1800s, harsh conditions led workers to organize: Long hoursLow wagesUnsafe working conditions
3Workers fight back:Took days offSlowed their work paceStrikes
4Knights of Labor 1869Did not believe in strikesUnskilled labor could not joinGOALS – shorter workday, end to child labor, equal pay for men/women
5(organized nationally) AFL (American Federation of Labor) 1886(organized nationally)Organized by Samuel GompersOpen to skilled labor only
6AFL: limited goals Higher wages 8 hour workdays Improved work conditionsFought for collective bargaining
7AFL… Supported use of strikes Collected dues to help pay workers during strikesBy 1910, 1.5 million members
8Haymarket Riot 1886 Strike at McCormick factory in Chicago Anarchists accused of starting riotAnti-labor feeling in US leads to drop in membership
9Homestead Strike, 1892 Homestead, PA, Carnegie’s Steel Mill. Thousands of strikers clash with Private Security (Pinkertons)Governor calls in National Guard to restore order, allow non-union workers into mill.Weakens public support for unions even more, shows govt. will side with owners/management.
10Pullman Strike 1894Violent strike in Chicago, with railroad workers siding with Pullman employeesRailroad traffic stops in ChicagoPullman strike, in U.S. history, an important labor dispute. On May 11,1894, workers of the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago struck toprotest wage cuts and the firing of union representatives. They soughtsupport from their union, the American Railway Union (ARU), led byEugene V. Debs, and on June 26 the ARU called a boycott of all Pullmanrailway cars. Within days, 50,000 rail workers complied and railroadtraffic out of Chicago came to a halt. When the railroad owners askedthe federal government to intervene, Attorney General Richard Olney, adirector of the Burlington and Santa Fe railroads, obtained (July 2) acourt injunction. On July 4, President Cleveland dispatched troops toChicago. Much rioting and bloodshed ensued, but the government'sactions broke the strike and the boycott soon collapsed. Debs andthree other union officials were jailed for disobeying the injunction.
11Pullman Strike 1894…Federal Judge orders injunction against the strikersStrike leaders (Eugene V. Debs) jailed.
12Weapons of Labor Unions: StrikesBoycottsPicketing
13Weapons of Employers:Hiring of Scabs (replacement workers, strike-breakers)Injunctions – court orders that forbid workers to strike, picket.Lockout – workers cannot work until they agree to employers termsBlacklists – troublemakers are targeted for non-employment by companies.
14Women in the Labor Movement: Women formed their own unions, but had no successMother Jones (Mary Jones) campaigned for reforms for workers, union membershipTriangle Fire in 1911 exposed working conditions for women
15Triangle Fire: March 1911Triangle Fire: March 1911
16Firemen’s ladders could not reach the top floors. Triangle Fire: March 1911Firemen’s ladders could not reach the top floors.