Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Unions CHAPTER 20 SECTION 4. By the late 1800s, harsh conditions led workers to organize: Long hours Low wages Unsafe working conditions."— Presentation transcript:
The Rise of Unions CHAPTER 20 SECTION 4
By the late 1800s, harsh conditions led workers to organize: Long hours Low wages Unsafe working conditions
Workers fight back: Took days off Slowed their work pace Strikes
Knights of Labor 1869 Did not believe in strikes Unskilled labor could not join GOALS – shorter workday, end to child labor, equal pay for men/women
AFL (American Federation of Labor) 1886 Organized by Samuel Gompers Open to skilled labor only (organized nationally)
AFL: limited goals Higher wages 8 hour workdays Improved work conditions Fought for collective bargaining
AFL… Supported use of strikes Collected dues to help pay workers during strikes By 1910, 1.5 million members
Haymarket Riot 1886 Strike at McCormick factory in Chicago Anarchists accused of starting riot Anti-labor feeling in US leads to drop in membership
Homestead Strike, 1892 Homestead, PA, Carnegie’s Steel Mill. Thousands of strikers clash with Private Security (Pinkertons) Governor calls in National Guard to restore order, allow non-union workers into mill. Weakens public support for unions even more, shows govt. will side with owners/management.
Pullman Strike 1894 Violent strike in Chicago, with railroad workers siding with Pullman employees Railroad traffic stops in Chicago
Pullman Strike 1894… Federal Judge orders injunction against the strikers Strike leaders (Eugene V. Debs) jailed.
Weapons of Labor Unions: Strikes Boycotts Picketing
Weapons of Employers: Hiring of Scabs (replacement workers, strike-breakers) Injunctions – court orders that forbid workers to strike, picket. Lockout – workers cannot work until they agree to employers terms Blacklists – troublemakers are targeted for non-employment by companies.
Women in the Labor Movement: Women formed their own unions, but had no success Mother Jones (Mary Jones) campaigned for reforms for workers, union membership Triangle Fire in 1911 exposed working conditions for women
Triangle Fire: March 1911
Firemen’s ladders could not reach the top floors.