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Defining Psychology  Psychology – the science of behavior and the mental process ◦ behavior: anything an organism does ◦ mental process: the internal.

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Presentation on theme: "Defining Psychology  Psychology – the science of behavior and the mental process ◦ behavior: anything an organism does ◦ mental process: the internal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Defining Psychology  Psychology – the science of behavior and the mental process ◦ behavior: anything an organism does ◦ mental process: the internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior

2  Ex- Social Psychologists study the conditions which make specific age groups conform.  Ex. Developmental Psychologists study why high school students have more difficulty with authoritarian parents than do elementary age students.

3 Types of Research Psychologists conduct  Applied research – aims to solve practical problems ◦ Ex. Industrial / Organizational Psych. ◦ Ex. Sports Psychology- Ex. Olympics ◦ Ex Consumer Psychology ◦ Hidden Motives (1:30-10:00) Hidden Motives Supermarket Psychology – YouTube Supermarket Psychology: Specials, pricing, Supermarket Psychology - Entrances, layout and shelving - YouTube

4  Political Psychologists are trained to  The Politics of Fear by John Dean  Ex- LBJ Daisy Commercial  Ex- Barrack Hussein Obama OR recent coverage trying to tie

5 Subfields (cont.)  Counseling Psychologist – graduate degrees in psychology – clients have less serious problems.  Clinical Psychologist – PhD in clinical psychology - study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders  Psychiatrist – medical doctors who are licensed to prescribe drugs and treat causes of psychological disorders

6 What is Psychology?  The History Of Psychology

7  Socrates was a teacher of Plato.  Both Socrates and Plato agreed that the mind and body are separate entities  Both believed that some ideas are inborn. Philosophers and Psychology (pre-scientific) Socrates 469-399 BC Plato 427-347 BC

8  Aristotle was a student of Plato.  Although he was a student of Plato, many of Aristotle’s ideas set him apart from the philosophies of Plato and Socrates  Aristotle believed that the mind and body are connected and cannot be separated.  He also believed that the mind begins as a blank slate. Philosophers and Psychology (pre-scientific) Aristotle 384-322 BC

9  Francis Bacon and John Locke viewed the mind as a blank slate (“tabula rasa”). Our experiences write on the blank slate and shape who we are. Western Thought Bacon 1561-1626 Locke 1632-1704

10 Some ideas are inbornBlank Slate SocratesAristotle PlatoLocke & Bacon Inborn or Blank Slate? The state of our Mind and Body? Mind & Body SeparateMind & Body Connected SocratesAristotle PlatoLocke Descartes “dualism”

11  Wilhelm Wundt – First psychological laboratory in Germany - 1879  Studied the time lag between hearing a ball hit a platform and pressing a telegraph key. He measured the reaction time, reaction to color/sound etc. Psychology is born.

12  Wundt is known as the Father of Psychology – He moved Psychology out of a realm of philosophy to a realm of science.  Wundt and his students used introspection to study structuralism. ◦ Introspection - record cognitive reactions to simple stimuli ◦ Structuralism – the study of the most basic elements of the mind. Ex. Reaction time Wundt (cont.)

13  wrote psychology’s first textbook in 1890 (The Principles of Psychology)  Developed the theory of functionalism  Functionalism - school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish. Ex Fear can help us survive. William James

14  Functionalism studies the function of the mind rather than the structure of the mind. ◦ James’ central question was how do our minds adapt to changing environment? Functionalism vs. Structuralism

15  Functionalism James  How does it work?  Structuralism Wundt  What is it? How to remember…

16  Introduced the Gestalt approach (1920)  Gestalt psychology – emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. ◦ The perception (whole experience) is often more than just a sum of the parts  “Gestalt” means whole  We perceive motion where there is nothing more than a sequence of individual sensory events. ◦ Ex. motion picture - The viewer sees an effect of the whole event. ◦ Ex. Flashing road sign during construction – our perception is that the arrows are moving Max Wertheimer

17 Law of Closure - If parts are missing, we tend to add to it OXXXXXX XOXXXXX XXOXXXX XXXOXXX XXXXOXX XXXXXOX XXXXXXO Law of Similarity – we tend to group similar items together Principle of figure ground – perceiving one part as the foreground and the other as the background ************** Law of proximity – things that are closer together are seen as belonging together. Gestalt psychology contributed to the study of therapy and perception.

18 Evolutionary Perspective  Human thoughts and actions are examined in terms of natural selection.  Look for traits that are advantageous for survival. Certain traits are passed down from the parents to the next generation.  How would Donna’s situation be explained using the evolutionary perspective? ◦ Donna’s behavior is not acceptable to society and may decrease her chance of survival

19  introduced the psychoanalytic theory  Freud believed that he discovered the unconscious mind. (a part of our mind in which we do not have conscious control over)  Sigmund Freud believed that the unconscious mind is repressed  Psychoanalysis – theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts Sigmund Freud

20  One can understand human thought and behavior through dream analysis, word association and psychoanalytic techniques  Freud is criticized for being unscientific and creating unverifiable theories. Psychoanalysis (cont.)

21  Watson introduced the behavioral approach  Watson studied the experiments of Pavlov  Behaviorism – belief that psychology should be 1. an objective science 2. study behavior without reference to mental processes (Today, psychologists agree with #1 but not #2) John B. Watson

22  Behaviorists believed that psychologists should only look at behavior and causes of behavior (one cannot observe sensation, feeling and thought)  Thus Watson, and other behaviorists reject ideas like structuralism and functionalism.  From the 1920’s to the 1960’s behaviorism is the dominant force in American psychology. Behaviorism (cont.)

23  Skinner was a behaviorist that contributed to the understanding and school of thought of behaviorism.  Skinner introduced the idea of reinforcement to the understanding of behavior.  Reinforcement is the environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses. B.F. Skinner


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