Presentation on theme: "Learning Target(S): Define psychology and trace its historical development. Identify and apply the major modern perspectives/approaches."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Target(S): Define psychology and trace its historical development. Identify and apply the major modern perspectives/approaches.
Psychology’s Roots Pre-scientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?
History of Psychology Socrates (469-399 B.C.) & Plato (428-348 B.C.) Socrates and Plato believed the mind was separate from the body. Socrates Plato
4 History of Psychology Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Aristotle suggested that the soul is not separable from the body.
5 John Locke (1632-1704) The mind was a tabula rasa, or blank sheet, at birth, and experiences wrote on it. History of Psychology René Descartes (1596-1650) The body and mind are separate, knowledge is innate
Founding Fathers of Ψ Wilhelm Wundt = “Father of Modern Psychology” –1 st psych lab –Measure the simplest human processes (reaction time) Edward Titchener (& Wundt) – Structuralism –Break down conscious experience into objective sensations & components
Founding Fathers of Ψ William James – Functionalism –How our behavior and mental processes help us adapt to our environments
John B. Watson – Behaviorism –Emphasized study of observable behavior Founding Fathers of Ψ B.F. Skinner Reinforcement & behavior
Founding Fathers of Ψ Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Psychoanalysis –Emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts in behavior
Gestalt Psychology German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, & Wolfgang Kohler (1920s) Emphasizes tendency to organize & integrate stimuli into meaningful patterns “the whole is more than the sum of its parts”
What is Psychology? Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes –Empirical science, not pseudoscience! Four goals of psychology: 1) Description 2) Explanation 3) Prediction 4) Control
Other Milestones in Scientific Psychology G. Stanley Hall – first psych lab in U.S. @ Johns Hopkins U. (1883) –1 st American psych journal (1887) – American Journal of Psychology Herman Ebbinghaus – studies on memory (1885) American Psychological Association (1892) Margaret Floy Washburn – 1 st woman to receive Ph.D. in psychology (1894) Mary Whiton Calkins – first woman president of APA (1905) Francis Cecil Sumner – 1 st African-American Ph.D. in psychology
Modern Psychology Perspectives Learning Target: Compare and contrast the seven major psychological perspectives. Why do we do the things we do? Why do we think the way we do?
Evolutionary/Biological Applies Darwin to Ψ –Inherited behaviors ensure survival –Natural selection Interaction of genes & behavior Parts of the brain, chemicals, hormones, nervous system
Psychodynamic Modern psychoanalytic school Unconscious desires and urges drive our behavior Conflicts from childhood
Behavioral (Learning) John Watson, B.F. Skinner Focuses on OBSERVABLE behaviors How we learn behaviors –Associations –Rewards & punishments –Observation How to change or modify behaviors
Cognitive Wilhelm Wundt, Jean Piaget, Herman Ebbinghaus Focuses on mental processes How we encode, process, store, & retrieve info Perception of the world around us
Humanistic Focuses on positive growth (get in touch with our emotions) People are good by nature and have free will Motivated to reach self-actualization Control over choices Abraham MaslowCarl Rogers
Socio-Cultural How our behavior & thoughts are influenced by society & culture Even in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures.
Individualist v. Collectivist VariableIndividualistCollectivist Personal IdentitySeparate from othersConnected to others Major GoalsSelf-defined; be unique; realize your personal potential; compete with others Defined by others; belong; occupy your proper place; meet your obligations to others; be like others Criteria for self-esteemAbility to express unique aspects of the self; ability to be self-assured Ability to restrain the self and be part of a social unit; ability to be modest Sources of success and failure Success comes from personal effort; failure, from external factors Success is due to help from others; failure is due to personal faults Major frame of referencePersonal attitudes, traits, and goals Family, work group