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History of Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Psychology

2 Modern Psychology’s Roots

3 What is Psychology? The science of behavior and mental processes
Behavior—observable actions of a person or animal Mind—thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences Science--an objective way to answer questions based on observable facts/data and well-described methods Separated from philosophy in 19th century influences from physiology remain Keywords: behavior, mind, science

4 Philosophical Developments
A Question: How are mind and body related? BIG René Descartes (1596–1650)—Interactive dualism The mind and body are separate but interact to produce conscious experience of sensations & emotions Keywords: dualism, Rene Descartes Graphic: picture of Descartes pg. 4 of Gray

5 Philosophical Developments
BIG Another Question: Nature vs. Nurture Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? What are the interactions between genetics and environment? What effect does it have on behavior? Keywords: materialism, empiricism, nativism

6 Physiology Influence Study of functions & parts of humans
By 1600’s began to focus on brain Began to develop explanations for the functioning of the senses. Becomes foundation for psychology as a science

7 Wilhelm Wundt Leipzig, Germany The “father of psychology”
Founder of modern psychology Opened the first psychology lab in 1879 applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind/consciousness Discovering Psy 2e p.4 Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920)

8 E.B. Titchener Wundt’s student, professor at Cornell University
Analyzed the intensity, clarity and quality of the parts of consciousness Founder of structuralism P. 5. Discovering psy. E. B. Titchener (1867–1927)

9 Structuralism Studied the basic elements (structures) of thoughts and sensations (consciousness). focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes Introspection – subject would view an object and try to reconstruct their sensations & feelings they felt while viewing it. Not scientific – too subjective, not repeatable, not able to be used for studying all topics (learning, development, mental disorders).

10 William James First American psychologist
Started psychology at Harvard in 1870s Opposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach Author of the first psychology textbook (1,400 pages!) Founder of Functionalism functionalism – influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment p. 5 Discovering psy William James (1842–1910)

11 Functionalism Emphasized studying the function of consciousness and how consciousness helped people adapt to their environment Used naturalistic observation Viewed consciousness as a stream of constantly changing states .


13 Explain the difference between Structuralism & Functionalism.
Structuralism – basic parts of a person’s thoughts and feelings. Focus on basic senses & perception. Functionalism – how our consciousness helps us to function or adapt to our environment.

14 William James’ Students
G. Stanley Hall – first Ph.D. in psych, started first U.S. psych lab, started the American Psychological Association. Mary Whiton Calkins – first woman to complete Ph.D. program but Harvard didn’t give her a degree! Became first woman president of the APA. Margaret Floy Washburn – first official Ph.D. in psychology. Studied different animal species. 2nd female president of APA.

15 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Austrian physician that focused on illness
Founder of the psychoanalytic perspective Believed that abnormal behavior originated from unconscious drives and conflicts that were aggressive and sexual in nature.

16 Freud’s Influence Influence on “pop culture” Freudian slips
Anal-retentive Influence on psychology Psychodynamic theory Unconscious thoughts Significance of childhood experiences

17 John B. Watson Founder of Behaviorism
Studied only observable and objectively described acts Emphasized objective and scientific methodology Performed the Little Albert Classical Conditioning Study p. 8 Discovering psy John B. Watson (1878–1958)

18 Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Behaviorist Russian Physiologist
Studied learning through associations (classical conditioning) in dogs Emphasized the study of observable behaviors

19 B.F. Skinner Behaviorist American psychologist at Harvard
Focused on learning through rewards and observation studied learning and effect of reinforcement & punishment (Operant Conditioning) p. 8 Discovering psy B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)

20 Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow (1902-1987) (1908-1970)
Helped to create Humanistic Psychology Stressed the study of conscious experience and an individual’s free will to reach their potential Healthy individuals strive to reach their potential.

21 Wolfgang Kohler Created Gestalt Psychology
The whole is different from the sum of its parts. Integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. Wolfgang Kohler ( )

22 Scene from Ferris Bueller (start at 1:05)
What do you see? You See the whole picture first rather than the individual dots that make it up. – Gestalt Psychology Scene from Ferris Bueller (start at 1:05)

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