2DialectsDef – Mutually intelligible forms of a language associated with a particular region, social class or ethnic groupNot all dialects carry the same prestige, usually the dialect spoken by the dominant group is more prestigious.Dialect leveling – decreasing differences between regional dialects
3DialectsRegistral varieties – are dependent on the participants, setting, and topic.Dialect density – the extent to which particular individuals use the available features of their dialect and depends on factors such as socioeconomic status and geography.Depending on social classes, there are some features that are used more than others.
4Myths about dialects (table 8.1) A dialect is a variety spoken by someone else.Dialect features are always distinct and noticeable.Dialects arise from ineffective tries at speaking the correct form of the language.Dialects are random changes from the “standard.”Dialects are always viewed negatively.
6English Pronunciation LinksEnglish around the World American English Australian English British English Canadian English Caribbean English English in India Irish/English New Zealand Nigerian English English in the Philippines Scots/English Singaporean English South African English Welsh/English
10African American English Is used by many African Americans and other groups (such as Puerto Ricans) in contact with AAE speakers.Is systematicOriginsAnglicist Hypothesis – AAE is a dialect of EnglishCreole Hypothesis – AAE descended from Plantation Creole, developed from a mixture of language brought into contact during the slave trade period.
11African American English Features Are always optionalAre not used in each possible phonetic contextNot produced by all AAE speakersInclude suprasegmentals also
12African American English Features Handbook on Language Differences and Speech and Language Pathology: Baltimore City Public SchoolsWolfram & Adger, Center for Applied Linguistics
13African American English Features Final Cluster ReductionSpecial ClustersMedial and Final thInitial thFricative Stopping before NasalsR and l VocalizationNasalsVowelsSyllable Structure/Prosodics
14African American English Features ExercisesGo to your other files and listen to an African American Dialect Speaker. Transcribe the samples.
15African American English – Development FindingsAAE-speaking children tend to produce the same phonetic inventory as speakers of GAE, although frequency may varyAt least 4-5 years oldShow great inter-subject variabilityNot all target features are present in all speakersAAE and GAE children may develop the same phonetic inventory and had phonetic inventory typical of AAE speakers, but these features occureed more frequently in AAE children
16African American English – Development Exhibit systematic error patternsDemonstrate differences in both the type and quantity of speech errors exhibited by typically developing speakers and those with phonological disorders.Speech delayed children had larger number ofStop errors (especially velars)Fricative errors in all positions (especially fricatives other than / Ө /Affricate errors in all positionsLarger number of consonant cluster errors
18African American English – Assessment Contrastive Analysis - McGregorMinimal Competency Core (MCC) - Stockman
19Contrastive AnalysisBecome familiar with the linguistic variety of interestLiteratureCompare to peersCollect local normsTest an entire population
20Contrastive Analysis Collecting Data Identifying True Errors Use diverse methods as any typical procedureIdentifying True ErrorsList all nonstandard errorsDecide whether patterns are inconsistent with SAEDecide whether patterns are inconsistent with D1/L1-L2
21Contrastive Analysis Interpreting the Results Use a diversity of sources for determining if there is a disorder
24Minimal Competency Core Developed to decrease bias in assessmentDefinition- the least amount of knowledge that one must exhibit to be judged as normal in a given age rangeBest used as a screening tool
25Minimum Competency Core Phonological features core includes the following word/syllable initial sounds that are invariable in GAE and AAE/m, n, b, t, d, k, f, g, s, h, w, j, l, r/.Assessing these with clusters differentiated typical from atypical development in AAE.
26Bilingualism and Phonology Factors affecting inter-individual variability
27Language Acquisition Variables First language acquisitionSecond language acquisitionFirst language maintenance/lossUse of two languages - dual language useL2 Acquisition Variables1. Major processes involved in bilingualisma. first language acquisition b. second language acquisitionc. first language maintenance d. the use of two languages
28Sequence of acquisition SimultaneousSequential/successiveKey points1. Simultaneous acquisition of two languages does not differ in developmental order or process from the acquisition of one language2. Children appear to be larning both languaes as if they were learning one3. Bilingualism can be the first langauge (idea of a single language system underlying both the languages of the bilingual child).
29Sequence of acquisition Question: Differentiated or undifferentiated system? When?Balanced bilingualsDominance
30Critical AgeAt what age should one be exposed to the languages to sound native-likeResearch points to a sensitive period from birth to puberty
31Context of learning Host language acquisition Foreign language acquisition
32Learning MethodsInformal vs. formalPedagogical methods
33Factors Affecting Language Maintenance and Language Shift Social AspectsAttitudesUse of LanguageGovernment PolicyOther Factors
34Internal Factors Socio-affective filter Cognitive organizer Monitor Personality factorPast experiencesInternal factorsa. socio-affective filter - the conscious or unconscious motives, needs, attitudes or emotional states of the learner.b. cognitive organizer - internal data processing mechanisms responsible fo rthe construction of the grammar we attribute to the learner (errors, progression of rules before mastering, order of acquis).c. monitor - conscious editig, nature and focus of task performedd. personality factore. past experiences
35The Influence of One Language on Another Bidirectional Influences1.Specific phonemes or allophones may not be shared by both languages2.Differences in distribution of sounds3.Different places of articulation of consonants4.Differences in phonological rules5.How and when pronunciation is acquiredPhonemes may not be shared so speakers say what approximates.Sounds may only occur in certain positions in L1
36Transfer/Interference Patterns Positive TransferNegative Transfer – Interference
37Transfer/Interference Patterns Under-Differentiation of PhonemesOver-Differentiation of PhonemesReinterpretation of DistinctionsPhone Substitution
38Transfer/Interference Patterns Under-Differentiation of PhonemesOccurs when two sounds of the secondary system for which counterparts are not distinguished in the primary system are confused.In Spanish /d/ occurs in word initial and after /n/ and /th/ occurs in intervocalic positionsIn English these sounds are separate phonemes.Spanish speaker will treat them as allophones of one phoneme and not necessarily make the distinction. Problems distinguishing “day” and “say.”
39Transfer/Interference Patterns Over-Differentiation of PhonemesImposes phonetic distinctions from L1 system on the L2 system, where they are not requiredAn English speaker may interpret [b] and [β] as allophones of /b/ and /v/.
40Transfer/Interference Patterns ReinterpretationSpeaker distinguishes phonemes of the L2 system by features that are merely redundant in that system, but are relevant in the L1Finnish speaker distinguishes vowel lengths, disregards vowel qualities between sit and seat and differentiate by vowel duration.
41Transfer/Interference Patterns. Phone SubstitutionOccurs when phonemes are defined identically in two languages but where the pronunciation differs.Portuguese /t/ is dental and unaspirated, English /t/ is alveolar and contextually aspirated; both are [+coronal, +anterior, -voiced, -continuant].
43Common/Uncommon phonological patterns (Yavas & Goldstein, 1998) Phonological processes – universalsReduced consonant clustersStopped fricativesFronted velars and palatalsGlided liquidsDeleted unstressed syllablesAssimilatory changesDisordered speechSome patterns are reported across languages, others not.After English, Spanish is the most well-studied.Reduced consonant clusters – bread becomes bedStopped fricatives – van becomes banFronted velars and palatals -Glided liquids – in English rabbit becomes wabbit, but not in other languages, in portuguese /l/ substitutes for /r/ page 53Deleted unstressed syllables – banana becomes nanaAssimilatory changes – labial boot becomes boopFinal consonant deletion of little concern for mandarinConsonant cluster reduction of no concern for turkish
44Common/Uncommon phonological patterns (Yavas & Goldstein, 1998) Monolingual versus bilingual children with and without disordersNormally developing bilinguals and bilinguals with disordersshowed an overall lower intelligibility rating,Made more errors overallDistorted more soundsProduced more uncommon error patternsBilingual children exhibited error patterns found in both languages as well as those typical in one language, and not typical in another language.See Table 1
45Assessment Considerations Accounting for dialectal differences in the L1 makes a differenceContrastive Analysis Procedures can be usedMinimal Competency Core ProceduresBilingual children tend to be more accurate in producing sounds that exist in both languages
46Accent ModificationElective Services to help persons increase their linguistic repertoires.Change Dialects/Code SwitchIncrease Second Language Skills
49Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools The fact that language differences do not represent linguistic and cognitive deficiencies is an important premise for any education program. Given the advantages that may be associated with the ability to use standard English in appropriate situations, most schools include it as a goal of instruction for all students. Some general guidelines should be followed in teaching standard English at any level (Wolfram & Christian, 1989).
50Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools * The teaching of standard English must take into account the importance of the group reference factor. Speakers who want to participate in a particular social group will typically learn the language of that group, whereas those with no group reference or with antagonistic feelings toward the group are less likely to do so.
51Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools Instruction in standard English should be coupled with information about the nature of dialect diversity. By giving students information about various dialects, including their own, teachers can demonstrate the integrity of all dialects. This approach clarifies the relationship between standard and vernacular dialects, underscoring the social values associated with each and the practical reasons for learning the standard dialect.
52Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools Teachers and materials developers need a clear understanding of the systematic differences between standard and vernacular dialects in order to help students learn standard English.
53Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools The dialect of spoken standard English that is taught should reflect the language norms of the community. The goal of instruction should be to learn the standard variety of the local community, not some formal dialect of English that is not actually used in the area. Regional standards are particularly relevant in the case of pronunciation features.
54Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools Language instruction should include norms of language use, along with standard English structures. Speaking a standard dialect includes the use of particular conversational styles as well as particular language forms. For example, using standard English in a business telephone conversation does not involve simply using standard grammar and pronunciation. It also involves other conventions, such as asking the caller to "hold" if an interruption is called for, or performing certain closing routines before hanging up.