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Phonology in Dialectalism and Bilingualism

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Presentation on theme: "Phonology in Dialectalism and Bilingualism"— Presentation transcript:

1 Phonology in Dialectalism and Bilingualism

2 Dialects Def – Mutually intelligible forms of a language associated with a particular region, social class or ethnic group Not all dialects carry the same prestige, usually the dialect spoken by the dominant group is more prestigious. Dialect leveling – decreasing differences between regional dialects

3 Dialects Registral varieties – are dependent on the participants, setting, and topic. Dialect density – the extent to which particular individuals use the available features of their dialect and depends on factors such as socioeconomic status and geography. Depending on social classes, there are some features that are used more than others.

4 Myths about dialects (table 8.1)
A dialect is a variety spoken by someone else. Dialect features are always distinct and noticeable. Dialects arise from ineffective tries at speaking the correct form of the language. Dialects are random changes from the “standard.” Dialects are always viewed negatively.


6 English Pronunciation
Links English around the World American English Australian English British English Canadian English Caribbean English English in India Irish/English New Zealand Nigerian English English in the Philippines Scots/English Singaporean English South African English Welsh/English


8 Other links

9 Linguistic Profiling

10 African American English
Is used by many African Americans and other groups (such as Puerto Ricans) in contact with AAE speakers. Is systematic Origins Anglicist Hypothesis – AAE is a dialect of English Creole Hypothesis – AAE descended from Plantation Creole, developed from a mixture of language brought into contact during the slave trade period.

11 African American English Features
Are always optional Are not used in each possible phonetic context Not produced by all AAE speakers Include suprasegmentals also

12 African American English Features
Handbook on Language Differences and Speech and Language Pathology: Baltimore City Public Schools Wolfram & Adger, Center for Applied Linguistics

13 African American English Features
Final Cluster Reduction Special Clusters Medial and Final th Initial th Fricative Stopping before Nasals R and l Vocalization Nasals Vowels Syllable Structure/Prosodics

14 African American English Features
Exercises Go to your other files and listen to an African American Dialect Speaker. Transcribe the samples.

15 African American English – Development
Findings AAE-speaking children tend to produce the same phonetic inventory as speakers of GAE, although frequency may vary At least 4-5 years old Show great inter-subject variability Not all target features are present in all speakers AAE and GAE children may develop the same phonetic inventory and had phonetic inventory typical of AAE speakers, but these features occureed more frequently in AAE children

16 African American English – Development
Exhibit systematic error patterns Demonstrate differences in both the type and quantity of speech errors exhibited by typically developing speakers and those with phonological disorders. Speech delayed children had larger number of Stop errors (especially velars) Fricative errors in all positions (especially fricatives other than / Ө / Affricate errors in all positions Larger number of consonant cluster errors

17 African American English

18 African American English – Assessment
Contrastive Analysis - McGregor Minimal Competency Core (MCC) - Stockman

19 Contrastive Analysis Become familiar with the linguistic variety of interest Literature Compare to peers Collect local norms Test an entire population

20 Contrastive Analysis Collecting Data Identifying True Errors
Use diverse methods as any typical procedure Identifying True Errors List all nonstandard errors Decide whether patterns are inconsistent with SAE Decide whether patterns are inconsistent with D1/L1-L2

21 Contrastive Analysis Interpreting the Results
Use a diversity of sources for determining if there is a disorder

22 Contrastive Analysis

23 Contrastive Analysis

24 Minimal Competency Core
Developed to decrease bias in assessment Definition- the least amount of knowledge that one must exhibit to be judged as normal in a given age range Best used as a screening tool

25 Minimum Competency Core
Phonological features core includes the following word/syllable initial sounds that are invariable in GAE and AAE /m, n, b, t, d, k, f, g, s, h, w, j, l, r/. Assessing these with clusters differentiated typical from atypical development in AAE.

26 Bilingualism and Phonology
Factors affecting inter-individual variability

27 Language Acquisition Variables
First language acquisition Second language acquisition First language maintenance/loss Use of two languages - dual language use L2 Acquisition Variables 1. Major processes involved in bilingualism a. first language acquisition b. second language acquisition c. first language maintenance d. the use of two languages

28 Sequence of acquisition
Simultaneous Sequential/successive Key points 1. Simultaneous acquisition of two languages does not differ in developmental order or process from the acquisition of one language 2. Children appear to be larning both languaes as if they were learning one 3. Bilingualism can be the first langauge (idea of a single language system underlying both the languages of the bilingual child).

29 Sequence of acquisition
Question: Differentiated or undifferentiated system? When? Balanced bilinguals Dominance

30 Critical Age At what age should one be exposed to the languages to sound native-like Research points to a sensitive period from birth to puberty

31 Context of learning Host language acquisition
Foreign language acquisition

32 Learning Methods Informal vs. formal Pedagogical methods

33 Factors Affecting Language Maintenance and Language Shift
Social Aspects Attitudes Use of Language Government Policy Other Factors

34 Internal Factors Socio-affective filter Cognitive organizer Monitor
Personality factor Past experiences Internal factors a. socio-affective filter - the conscious or unconscious motives, needs, attitudes or emotional states of the learner. b. cognitive organizer - internal data processing mechanisms responsible fo rthe construction of the grammar we attribute to the learner (errors, progression of rules before mastering, order of acquis). c. monitor - conscious editig, nature and focus of task performed d. personality factor e. past experiences

35 The Influence of One Language on Another
Bidirectional Influences 1.Specific phonemes or allophones may not be shared by both languages 2.Differences in distribution of sounds 3.Different places of articulation of consonants 4.Differences in phonological rules 5.How and when pronunciation is acquired Phonemes may not be shared so speakers say what approximates. Sounds may only occur in certain positions in L1

36 Transfer/Interference Patterns
Positive Transfer Negative Transfer – Interference

37 Transfer/Interference Patterns
Under-Differentiation of Phonemes Over-Differentiation of Phonemes Reinterpretation of Distinctions Phone Substitution

38 Transfer/Interference Patterns
Under-Differentiation of Phonemes Occurs when two sounds of the secondary system for which counterparts are not distinguished in the primary system are confused. In Spanish /d/ occurs in word initial and after /n/ and /th/ occurs in intervocalic positions In English these sounds are separate phonemes. Spanish speaker will treat them as allophones of one phoneme and not necessarily make the distinction. Problems distinguishing “day” and “say.”

39 Transfer/Interference Patterns
Over-Differentiation of Phonemes Imposes phonetic distinctions from L1 system on the L2 system, where they are not required An English speaker may interpret [b] and [β] as allophones of /b/ and /v/.

40 Transfer/Interference Patterns
Reinterpretation Speaker distinguishes phonemes of the L2 system by features that are merely redundant in that system, but are relevant in the L1 Finnish speaker distinguishes vowel lengths, disregards vowel qualities between sit and seat and differentiate by vowel duration.

41 Transfer/Interference Patterns.
Phone Substitution Occurs when phonemes are defined identically in two languages but where the pronunciation differs. Portuguese /t/ is dental and unaspirated, English /t/ is alveolar and contextually aspirated; both are [+coronal, +anterior, -voiced, -continuant].

42 Transfer/Interference Patterns
Occur in Suprasegmentals Phonotactics Phonotactics - eschool

43 Common/Uncommon phonological patterns (Yavas & Goldstein, 1998)
Phonological processes – universals Reduced consonant clusters Stopped fricatives Fronted velars and palatals Glided liquids Deleted unstressed syllables Assimilatory changes Disordered speech Some patterns are reported across languages, others not. After English, Spanish is the most well-studied. Reduced consonant clusters – bread becomes bed Stopped fricatives – van becomes ban Fronted velars and palatals - Glided liquids – in English rabbit becomes wabbit, but not in other languages, in portuguese /l/ substitutes for /r/ page 53 Deleted unstressed syllables – banana becomes nana Assimilatory changes – labial boot becomes boop Final consonant deletion of little concern for mandarin Consonant cluster reduction of no concern for turkish

44 Common/Uncommon phonological patterns (Yavas & Goldstein, 1998)
Monolingual versus bilingual children with and without disorders Normally developing bilinguals and bilinguals with disorders showed an overall lower intelligibility rating, Made more errors overall Distorted more sounds Produced more uncommon error patterns Bilingual children exhibited error patterns found in both languages as well as those typical in one language, and not typical in another language. See Table 1

45 Assessment Considerations
Accounting for dialectal differences in the L1 makes a difference Contrastive Analysis Procedures can be used Minimal Competency Core Procedures Bilingual children tend to be more accurate in producing sounds that exist in both languages

46 Accent Modification Elective Services to help persons increase their linguistic repertoires. Change Dialects/Code Switch Increase Second Language Skills


48 Teaching Standard Dialect
Fox News -

49 Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools
The fact that language differences do not represent linguistic and cognitive deficiencies is an important premise for any education program. Given the advantages that may be associated with the ability to use standard English in appropriate situations, most schools include it as a goal of instruction for all students. Some general guidelines should be followed in teaching standard English at any level (Wolfram & Christian, 1989).

50 Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools
* The teaching of standard English must take into account the importance of the group reference factor. Speakers who want to participate in a particular social group will typically learn the language of that group, whereas those with no group reference or with antagonistic feelings toward the group are less likely to do so.

51 Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools
Instruction in standard English should be coupled with information about the nature of dialect diversity. By giving students information about various dialects, including their own, teachers can demonstrate the integrity of all dialects. This approach clarifies the relationship between standard and vernacular dialects, underscoring the social values associated with each and the practical reasons for learning the standard dialect.

52 Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools
Teachers and materials developers need a clear understanding of the systematic differences between standard and vernacular dialects in order to help students learn standard English.

53 Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools
The dialect of spoken standard English that is taught should reflect the language norms of the community. The goal of instruction should be to learn the standard variety of the local community, not some formal dialect of English that is not actually used in the area. Regional standards are particularly relevant in the case of pronunciation features.

54 Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools
Language instruction should include norms of language use, along with standard English structures. Speaking a standard dialect includes the use of particular conversational styles as well as particular language forms. For example, using standard English in a business telephone conversation does not involve simply using standard grammar and pronunciation. It also involves other conventions, such as asking the caller to "hold" if an interruption is called for, or performing certain closing routines before hanging up.

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