Presentation on theme: "Phonology in Dialectalism and Bilingualism Dialects Def – Mutually intelligible forms of a language associated with a particular region, social class."— Presentation transcript:
Phonology in Dialectalism and Bilingualism
Dialects Def – Mutually intelligible forms of a language associated with a particular region, social class or ethnic group Not all dialects carry the same prestige, usually the dialect spoken by the dominant group is more prestigious. Dialect leveling – decreasing differences between regional dialects
Dialects Registral varieties – are dependent on the participants, setting, and topic. Dialect density – the extent to which particular individuals use the available features of their dialect and depends on factors such as socioeconomic status and geography. Depending on social classes, there are some features that are used more than others.
Myths about dialects (table 8.1) A dialect is a variety spoken by someone else. Dialect features are always distinct and noticeable. Dialects arise from ineffective tries at speaking the correct form of the language. Dialects are random changes from the “standard.” Dialects are always viewed negatively.
English Pronunciation Links English around the World American English Australian English British English Canadian English Caribbean English English in India Irish/English New Zealand Nigerian English English in the Philippines Scots/English Singaporean English South African English Welsh/English around the World American English Australian English British English Canadian English Caribbean English English in India Irish/English New Zealand Nigerian English English in the Philippines Scots/English Singaporean English South African English Welsh/English
Other links ics/index.htmlhttp://www.uiowa.edu/%7Eacadtech/phonet ics/index.html
African American English Is used by many African Americans and other groups (such as Puerto Ricans) in contact with AAE speakers. Is systematic Origins Anglicist Hypothesis – AAE is a dialect of English Creole Hypothesis – AAE descended from Plantation Creole, developed from a mixture of language brought into contact during the slave trade period.
African American English Features Are always optional Are not used in each possible phonetic context Not produced by all AAE speakers Include suprasegmentals also
African American English Features Handbook on Language Differences and Speech and Language Pathology: Baltimore City Public Schools Wolfram & Adger, Center for Applied Linguistics
African American English Features Final Cluster Reduction Special Clusters Medial and Final th Initial th Fricative Stopping before Nasals R and l Vocalization Nasals Vowels Syllable Structure/Prosodics
African American English Features Exercises Go to your other files and listen to an African American Dialect Speaker. Transcribe the samples.
African American English – Development Findings AAE-speaking children tend to produce the same phonetic inventory as speakers of GAE, although frequency may vary At least 4-5 years old Show great inter-subject variability Not all target features are present in all speakers
African American English – Development Exhibit systematic error patterns Demonstrate differences in both the type and quantity of speech errors exhibited by typically developing speakers and those with phonological disorders. Speech delayed children had larger number of Stop errors (especially velars) Fricative errors in all positions (especially fricatives other than / Ө / Affricate errors in all positions Larger number of consonant cluster errors
African American English Exercises
African American English – Assessment Contrastive Analysis - McGregor Minimal Competency Core (MCC) - Stockman
Contrastive Analysis 1.Become familiar with the linguistic variety of interest Literature Compare to peers Collect local norms Test an entire population
Contrastive Analysis 2.Collecting Data Use diverse methods as any typical procedure 3.Identifying True Errors List all nonstandard errors Decide whether patterns are inconsistent with SAE Decide whether patterns are inconsistent with D1/L1-L2
Contrastive Analysis 4.Interpreting the Results Use a diversity of sources for determining if there is a disorder
Minimal Competency Core Developed to decrease bias in assessment Definition- the least amount of knowledge that one must exhibit to be judged as normal in a given age range Best used as a screening tool
Minimum Competency Core Phonological features core includes the following word/syllable initial sounds that are invariable in GAE and AAE /m, n, b, t, d, k, f, g, s, h, w, j, l, r/. Assessing these with clusters differentiated typical from atypical development in AAE.
Bilingualism and Phonology Factors affecting inter-individual variability
Language Acquisition Variables First language acquisition Second language acquisition First language maintenance/loss Use of two languages - dual language use
Sequence of acquisition Simultaneous Sequential/successive
Sequence of acquisition Question: Differentiated or undifferentiated system? When? Balanced bilinguals Dominance
Critical Age At what age should one be exposed to the languages to sound native-like Research points to a sensitive period from birth to puberty
Context of learning Host language acquisition Foreign language acquisition
Learning Methods Informal vs. formal Pedagogical methods
Factors Affecting Language Maintenance and Language Shift Social Aspects Attitudes Use of Language Government Policy Other Factors
The Influence of One Language on Another Bidirectional Influences 1.Specific phonemes or allophones may not be shared by both languages 2.Differences in distribution of sounds 3.Different places of articulation of consonants 4.Differences in phonological rules 5.How and when pronunciation is acquired
Transfer/Interference Patterns Transfer Positive Transfer Negative Transfer – Interference
Transfer/Interference Patterns Under-Differentiation of Phonemes Over-Differentiation of Phonemes Reinterpretation of Distinctions Phone Substitution
Transfer/Interference Patterns Under-Differentiation of Phonemes Occurs when two sounds of the secondary system for which counterparts are not distinguished in the primary system are confused. In Spanish /d/ occurs in word initial and after /n/ and /th/ occurs in intervocalic positions In English these sounds are separate phonemes. Spanish speaker will treat them as allophones of one phoneme and not necessarily make the distinction. Problems distinguishing “day” and “say.”
Transfer/Interference Patterns Over-Differentiation of Phonemes Imposes phonetic distinctions from L1 system on the L2 system, where they are not required An English speaker may interpret [b] and [β] as allophones of /b/ and /v/.
Transfer/Interference Patterns Reinterpretation Speaker distinguishes phonemes of the L2 system by features that are merely redundant in that system, but are relevant in the L1 Finnish speaker distinguishes vowel lengths, disregards vowel qualities between sit and seat and differentiate by vowel duration.
Transfer/Interference Patterns. Phone Substitution Occurs when phonemes are defined identically in two languages but where the pronunciation differs. Portuguese /t/ is dental and unaspirated, English /t/ is alveolar and contextually aspirated; both are [+coronal, +anterior, - voiced, -continuant].
Transfer/Interference Patterns Occur in Suprasegmentals Phonotactics
Common/Uncommon phonological patterns (Yavas & Goldstein, 1998) Phonological processes – universals Reduced consonant clusters Stopped fricatives Fronted velars and palatals Glided liquids Deleted unstressed syllables Assimilatory changes Disordered speech Some patterns are reported across languages, others not.
Common/Uncommon phonological patterns (Yavas & Goldstein, 1998) Monolingual versus bilingual children with and without disorders Normally developing bilinguals and bilinguals with disorders showed an overall lower intelligibility rating, Made more errors overall Distorted more sounds Produced more uncommon error patterns Bilingual children exhibited error patterns found in both languages as well as those typical in one language, and not typical in another language. See Table 1
Assessment Considerations Accounting for dialectal differences in the L1 makes a difference Contrastive Analysis Procedures can be used Minimal Competency Core Procedures Bilingual children tend to be more accurate in producing sounds that exist in both languages
Accent Modification Elective Services to help persons increase their linguistic repertoires. Change Dialects/Code Switch Increase Second Language Skills
Teaching Standard Dialect Fox News -Fox News
Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools The fact that language differences do not represent linguistic and cognitive deficiencies is an important premise for any education program. Given the advantages that may be associated with the ability to use standard English in appropriate situations, most schools include it as a goal of instruction for all students. Some general guidelines should be followed in teaching standard English at any level (Wolfram & Christian, 1989).
Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools * The teaching of standard English must take into account the importance of the group reference factor. Speakers who want to participate in a particular social group will typically learn the language of that group, whereas those with no group reference or with antagonistic feelings toward the group are less likely to do so.
Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools Instruction in standard English should be coupled with information about the nature of dialect diversity. By giving students information about various dialects, including their own, teachers can demonstrate the integrity of all dialects. This approach clarifies the relationship between standard and vernacular dialects, underscoring the social values associated with each and the practical reasons for learning the standard dialect.
Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools Teachers and materials developers need a clear understanding of the systematic differences between standard and vernacular dialects in order to help students learn standard English.
Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools The dialect of spoken standard English that is taught should reflect the language norms of the community. The goal of instruction should be to learn the standard variety of the local community, not some formal dialect of English that is not actually used in the area. Regional standards are particularly relevant in the case of pronunciation features.
Guidelines for Teaching Standard Dialect in Schools Language instruction should include norms of language use, along with standard English structures. Speaking a standard dialect includes the use of particular conversational styles as well as particular language forms. For example, using standard English in a business telephone conversation does not involve simply using standard grammar and pronunciation. It also involves other conventions, such as asking the caller to "hold" if an interruption is called for, or performing certain closing routines before hanging up.