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Approaches to Assessment

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1 Approaches to Assessment

2 Assessment Approaches
Analysis of Phonetic Inventories Consonant Inventory Vowel Inventory Stress Patterns Syllable Sequence/Structure Analysis Consonant Cluster Production Distinctive Feature Analysis Place and Manner Analysis Phonological Process Analysis Contextual Testing

3 Analysis of Phonetic Inventories
Performed with children in Stage 2 and early Stage 3 See Bliele page 32 for table Describes ability to pronounce Distinctive features Sounds Syllables Stress patterns Does not specify if person speaks correctly

4 Table II.1

5 Consonant Inventories/Production Analysis
Performed on children Stages 2 to 4 Attached to age norms Norms exist for consonant inventories of unintelligible and intelligible speech (page 34) Table 5.1 and 5.2 For analysis of intelligible speech, a consonant is established when it occurs in at least two different words. For analysis of unintelligible speech, a consonant is established when it occurs in at list three different words.

6 Table 5.1

7 Table 5.2

8 Consonant Inventory The developmental level of a client’s consonant inventory is that most closely approximating the number and type of client’s established consonants. (see page 106 Bliele, tables 11.1 and 11.2) Categories for acquisition of consonants and consonant clusters Categories Percentage Chances (5) Chances (10) Mastered /5-5/ /10-10/10 words Acquired / /10-7/10 Emerging / /10 – 4/10 Rare / /10 Absent / /10 Bliele (pg 106)

9 Table 11.1

10 Table 11.2

11 Most frequently misarticulated sounds
/s, z, , , , , t, d, v, r, w/

12 Vowel Inventory Pollock (1991) recommends vowels and dipththongs to be assessed: Non-rhotic /I, I, ei, , ae, u, , ou, , , , aI, au, i) Rhotic (vowel = shwar) /, I ,  ,  ,   /

13 Stress Patterns Beat of words
Primary stress is indicated by placing a line above the vowel or beginning of syllable peٰrmit or ٰpermit permiٰt or perٰmit Only include an aspect of a child’s phonetic inventory if it occurs in two or more words

14 Syllable Sequence/Structure Analysis
Analyze syllable sequences in words. Describe words in terms of Syllable boundaries Sequences of consonants and vowels Use period to indicate syllable boundaries CCV.CV.CV Syllable Structure Describe two levels of syllable structure Syllable level Consonant and vowel level S C V

15 Consonant Cluster Production
Performed with clients Stages 2-4 Categories for acquisition of consonants and consonant clusters Categories Percentage Chances (5) Chances (10) Mastered /5-5/ /10-10/10 words Acquired / /10-7/10 Emerging / /10 – 4/10 Rare / /10 Absent / /10 Bliele (pg 106)

16 Distinctive Feature for Consonants
Sounds are categorized into classes Natural classes are groups of sounds in a language that share the same features Articulatory Acoustic or Auditory Each sound is analyzed in terms of constituent features. These features and not the phonemes are the smallest and most basic unit of phonological analysis Features are theoretical constructs System aims at providing a limited set of universal features that is adequate for describing the phonological constrasts of all languages in the world

17 Distinctive Feature Approaches
Speech sample should satisfy the following criteria Describe patterns used by the speaker Identify the ways in which these patterns differ from those used by normal speakers Determine the implications of these disordered patterns for effective communication Provide a basis for assessing changes during treatment

18 Distinctive Feature Approaches
DF theory groups sounds into classes according to the common features which define them Singh and Polen (1972) features are more related to speech production – See table 4.5 Front/Back Nonlabial/labial Nonsonorant/sonorant Nonnasal/nasal Nonsibilant/sibilant Voiceless/voiced

19 Table Singh and Polen (1972)

20 Distinctive Feature Analysis Chart

21 Distinctive Feature Approaches
You can use Tests and subtests Traditional phonetic description can be used in much the same manner Manner and place tables You can use the information you gather from different tests

22 Place and Manner Analysis

23 Traditional Chart Non resonants stops fricatives affricates Resonants
nasals approximants glides liquids Refer to table 5.1 replace 4.7 with 5.1

24 Place and Manner Analysis

25 Distinctive Feature for Vowels

26 See Bliele, 1.2 pg.4 and Bankson, 1.1 pg.13
Place Height

27 Phonological Process Analysis
Simplifies groups of sounds and eliminate sound contrasts Processes Natural Idiosyncratic

28 Phonological Process Analysis
Methods developed Procedures for the analysis of children’s language (Ingram, 1976) Phonological analysis: A multifaceted approach (Lund and Duchan (1978, 1983) Natural process analysis (Shriberg and Kwiatkowski (1980) Assessment of phonological processes (Hodson, 1980)

29 Contextual Testing Purposes Deep Test of Articulation (McDonald)
Influence of surrounding phones Consistency of misarticulations Deep Test of Articulation (McDonald) Objected to three position testing because Word and speech appear in sequence of syllables Sounds do not appear in initial, medial and final positions but as releasers and arrestors in syllables Too small a sample

30 Contextual Testing - McDonald
Types of consonant connections Simple = CV, VC, CVC Double = Between two vowels (VCV) Across word boundaries Perform both arresting and releasing functions in a sequential manner Compound = consonant cluster Abutting = two adjacent consonants are components of two different syllables Finally, stimulability may be a better predictor for therapy

31 A procedure for completing phonological analysis and error pattern analysis
Newman, et. al. Assessment and Remediation of Articulatory and Phonological Disorders. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill

32 Transcribe Transcribe the sample phonetically as a list of words
You can group according to their initial and final consonants

33 Example

34 Analyze Analyze the syllable structures
A list of the different word structures of in the sample should be made Write the syllable structure next to the word

35 Example

36 Analyze Analyze substitutions and distortions
Syllable initial and syllable final Errors should try to be coded as substitutions instead of distortions whenever possible In these cases try to use narrow transcription

37 Example

38 List Phonemes used correctly
Phonemes used correctly somewhere/anywhere in the sample (note word position), in some context Phonemes appearing in the sample as substitutions, but never used correctly Phonemes that were not represented in the sample words

39 Summaries

40 Summary Word Structures

41 Summary of Substitutions, Omissions, Distortions

42 Example Phonemic Repertoire 1. Used correctly all the time: w, h
Used correctly in some context: p, b, m, w, t, d, n, h Appearing; not used correctly: none Not represented in sample words: 

43 Examine Examine the substituting and omission columns for phonological processes Scan the omission column for final consonant deletion, number of times it does and does not occur and phonemes for which it applies Scan the substitutions for stopping, fronting of palatals and/or velars, gliding or liquid simplification, cluster reduction, assimilation, voicing or devoicing and other processes

44 Examine (continued) Notation should be made of which phonemes are affected

45 Distinctive Feature Analysis Chart

46 Traditional Description of Consonants Chart

47 Correct Sounds and Substitutions Chart

48 Example Processes 1.Final consonant deletion – all phonemes
2. Stopping 3. Liquid simplification 4. Vocalization 5. Cluster reduction 6. Fronting

49 Contrastive Analysis Used for
Dialect speakers Second language learners McGregor, Williams, Hearst and Johnson (1997)

50 Contrastive Analysis Process
Become familiar with the linguistic variety Literature Compare speech with other members of family Collect local norms Interviews Collect data for contrastive analysis Identify true errors List all nonstandard patterns Evaluate if patterns consistent with D1/L1 If patterns are inconsistent they are true errors Some inconsistent errors may indicate the person is in process of acquiring Interpret the results Use other information to verify your judgments, to validate

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