2Prime FactorsPrime factors: affect x-ray emission; under the control of the radiographer.Miliamperage-second (mAs)Kilovoltage (kVp)Distance (d)Related to tube design and construction.Tube housingTarget materialFiltrationVoltage waveform
3X-Ray QuantityX-ray quantity: measure of the number of x-ray photons in the useful beam.AKA x-ray output, intensity, or exposureUnit Roentgen (R)Directly affected by:Miliamperage-second (mAs)Kilovoltage (kVp)Distance (d)
4X-ray qualityX-ray quality: measurement of the penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.Describes the distance an x-ray beam travels in matter.High energy x-ray photons travel farther in matter- more penetratingNumerically represented by the Half-value layer (HVL).
5Half-Value LayerHalf-value layer of an x-ray beam is that thickness of absorbing material needed to reduce the x-ray intensity to half its original value.Affected by:KilovoltageFiltrationNot controlled from exposure to exposure
6Milliamperage Milliamperage (mA): measurement of x-ray tube current. The number of electrons crossing the tube from cathode to anode per secondDirectly proportional to tube currentAmpere: equal to an electrical charge of 1 coulomb flowing through a conductor per second.1 Coulomb = 6.3 x 1018 electron charges.
7ExposureExposure time is directly proportional to the number of electrons crossing the tube and is therefore directly proportional to the number of x-rays created.The number of x-rays that will be created at the target is a product of the number of electrons crossing the tube (tube current) and how long the electrons are allowed to cross (exposure time).Measured in mAs- primary controller of x-ray quantity.
8Density Relationship to mAs Radiographic film density is the degree of blackening of an x-ray filmCreated by deposits of black metallic silver on an x-ray film that has been exposed to light or x-ray and then processedDensities are the result of an x-ray exposure to the film and intensifying screens.Film density is determined by the amount of silver deposition in the emulsion due to:Film typeExposure conditionsExposure (mR)Processing
9Density Relationship to mAs If the exposure to a film is increased, the density to that film will increase until the point where the film reached its maximum density (Dmax).mAs is used as the primary controller of radiographic film density.By maintaining a specific exposure relative to the speed of the image receptor, consistent film density can be achieved.
10Reciprocity LawThe reaction of a photographic film to light is equal to the product of the intensity of the light and the duration of the exposure.The density on the x-ray film should remain unchanged as long as the intensity and duration of the x-ray exposure remains unchanged.Fails for exposures made at extremely short exposure times (less than 1/100 second) or extremely long exposure times (more than a second)Law failure in not very significant in diagnostic radiology because exposures are seldom at those extremes
11KilovoltageIncreasing the kilovoltage on an x-ray control panel will cause an increase in the speed and energy of the electrons applied across the x-ray tube.Increased energy of the electrons results in the production of x-ray photons with greater energy.Controls both the quantity and quality of the x-ray beam.Quantity: more interactions will occur at the target as kVp increases.Quality: each electron has more energy resulting in a beam with greater penetrability
12Density Relationship to kVp Changes in kilovoltage create changes in beam penetrability.kVp is the primary controller of the differences in radiographic density.kVp should NOT be used to control radiographic film density (contrast)As kVp increases, causes increase in penetrability, which will result in less contrast.
1315 percent ruleAn increase in kVp by 15 percent will cause a doubling in exposure, the same effect as doubling the mA or doubling exposure time.Hypothetically, if kVp is doubled, the x-ray quantity would increase by a factor of four, but this does not take into account the increased penetrability of the bean with increasing kVp.As a result, radiographic density is more significantly affected.To maintain exposure with changes in kVp, the 15 percent rule can be applied,To maintain density, if the kVp is increased 15 percent, the mAs must be reduced to one-half its original value.
14DistanceThe intensity of x-rays varies greatly with changes in distance.Measurement of the x-ray intensity is obtained using a dosimeter.X-ray photons are most concentrated at the target and from there they spread out in all directions.X-ray intensity (quantity) begins to diminish.Photons that exit the tube port constitute the primary useful beam.
15Inverse Square LawIntensity of radiation at a given distance from the point source is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.I1 / I2 = D22 / D12I1 = original intensityI2 = new intensityD22 = original distanceD12 = new distance
16Distance Relationship to Distance As the distance increases, intensity decreases which causes a decrease in exposure to the image receptor.Since mAs is the primary controller of x-ray intensity and radiographic film density, mAs can be adjusted to compensate for changes in distance.
17Exposure (film density) maintenance formula mAs should increase proportionally to the square of the change when distance increases. (direct square law)mAs1 / mAs2 = D12 / D22mAs1 = original mAsmAs2 = New mAsD22 = original distanceD12 = new distance
18Density Relationship to mAs, kVp & d The radiographer should select the kVp based on the desired contrast, and adjust mAs to provide the appropriate total exposure to the receptor.