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Chapter’s 2, 3. & 4 By Garland Fisher

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1 Chapter’s 2, 3. & 4 By Garland Fisher
Radiology Chapter’s 2, 3. & 4 By Garland Fisher

2 Electromagnetic spectrum
Unique abilities Some rays visible some are not Penetrates matter Produces latent image Produces fluorescence Light bulb Produces ionization of matter Change matter

3 Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Matter can be altered by energy Fundamental unit of matter is the Atom Desk Chair Computer Tissue Muscle Teeth Bone Your Patient

4 Atom Electrons An atom is the smallest unit of an element, it consist of a positively charged protons found in the nucleus. Negatively charge electrons that orbit around the nucleus. Neutron Proton Electron

5 Nucleus (Dense core that occupies very little space)
Protons Subatomic particles and positively charged Neutrons Subatomic particles and has no charge

6 Nuclear Composition Is this Atom stable or unstable?
Equal number of protons and electrons form a stable atom. The number of protons and neutrons equals the atomic weight. Force will knock an electron out of their orbit. X-radiation Electromagnetic energy Is this Atom stable or unstable?

7 Ionization (production of ions)
Converting atoms into ions. To produce ions a force or a collision such as x-radiation or electromagnetic energy must eject an electron out from its orbit. Thus making the atom unstable. Spontaneous release excess energy in the form of wave or particles. ION

8 Electrostatic Force Binding energy holds electrons in their orbits (Example: sun and the planets)
There are seven shells an atom can have they are k, l, m, n, o, p, and q. K-shell has the highest energy and the strongest binding energy Nucleus k l m n o p q

9 Atoms into ions Positive ions are ionized atoms.
An ionized atom has been interrupted by some force: X-radiation Electromagnetic energy Negative ions are electrons out of orbit or unstable structures. This ejected ion will speed off to interact with other atoms. When they interact or collide it sets off a chain reaction and in turn will eject other electrons until the energy dissipates.

10 Elements Elements Substances made up of only one type of Atom

11 Molecule Molecule Two or more Atoms make up a molecule
Two Hydrogen and one Oxygen = Water Bonded together by electrons on the outer most shells

12 Ionizing Radiation (all radiation cause biological changes)
Particulate Responsible for radioactivity Radioactivity is when atoms spontaneously disintegrate or decay. Power plant Atomic bomb Electromagnetic Series of wave like energies with no mass some high energy some low energy Visible and invisible Man made or natural occurring

13 Electromagnetic Energy
Made up of both wave and particle that travel in a straight line X-ray = bundle of energy, is termed, x-ray photon which has no mass no charge and travels at the speed of light (186,000 MPS) X-ray photon is what interacts with matter (your patient)

14 Examples of electromagnetic radiation and there wave like patterns
Less energy More energy

15 Electromagnetic Energy
Wavelength Distance between the crest of the wave to the next wave Frequency Refers to the number of wavelength that pass a given point in a certain amount of time. We can adjust the frequency by kilovoltage

16 Voltage Measurement of electrical force that cause electrons to move from a negative pole to a positive one (Strength) Dental x-ray units require a high level of electrical potential

17 Kilo-Voltage Peak (KVp)
Kilovoltage controls the level of penetration Shorter wavelength = more penetrating High frequency = more penetrating Longer wavelength = less penetrating Low frequency the = penetrating Kilovoltage Kilo = 1000 Volatage = volts 110 or 220 Higher voltage means greater energies Dental radiographs require 65 to 100 kilovolts Higher KVp should be used when area is dense or thick Adjust KVp on individual diagnostic needs Overall QUALITY of primary beam

18 Amperage Measurement of electrons moving through a conductor
Current is measured in amperes

19 Milliamperes (mA) Milliampere Milli = 1/1000
Ampere = Electrical current NOT voltage mA settings 7, 10, and 15 Thermionic emissions Higher the setting increases temperature resulting in some electrons being ejected out of their orbit. Ampere allows electrical current to flow thru a filament which results in a cloud of electrons Depending on mA setting will depend on the QUANTITY of x-rays produced

20 Milliamperes-Seconds
Exposure time Interval of time in which photons are being produced (.117 secs) Longer time = more photons High mA = more photons Both mA and exposure time both have a direct influence on the number of electrons produced If we produce to many photons our dental film will be dark or black

21 Radiographic Density (Degree of darkness or blackness of an x-ray.)
Amount of radiation reaching the film KV or mA Distance from the x-ray tube to the patient Patient thickness (Density) Developing conditions The more photons that strike the film the more dense (black) the radiograph will appear

22 Tubehead Cathode Negative electrode consist of tungsten filament held in a cup shaped holder made of molybdenum Negative = electrons, therefore electrons are created to produce photons * Electrons held in place

23 Tubehead Anode Positive electrode consist of a wafer thin tungsten plate embedded in a solid copper rod Positive = collision = photons * Collision produced photons (indicated in red)

24 Transformers Three types are used in production of x-rays
Step down decreases the voltage from the incoming 110 or 220 to three to five volts required Step up Increases the voltage to 65,000 to 100,000 volts required Autotransformer Compensator

25 Inside the Tubehead

26 This is What Happens Electricity excites the filament at 3-5 volts, creating thermionic emissions, a release of electrons from the tungsten filament when heated, this cloud of electrons stay in place until the exposure button is pushed. The high voltage circuit is activated. The electrons produce are accelerated across the x-ray tube to the anode. The molybdenum cup helps to direct the electrons to the tungsten target. When the electrons strike the tungsten target their energy of motion or kinetic energy is converted to x-ray energy and heat. More heat is created that x-rays and is dissipated through the copper stem and absorbed by the insulating oil. X-rays are produce in all direction only a few will escape through the unleaded portion of the tube. Those x-rays will be directed to the aluminum filter, which will remove the long waves. The collimator will focus the remaining short waves and travel down the lead lined PID and exit the tubehead

27 Production of radiation (not all produce the same in the tube head)
General radiation AKA braking radiation An electron passes near the nucleus and is deflected by the positively charge nucleus Once deflected this kinetic energy is converted into photons Add photo Bremsstrahlung German (braking radiation)

28 Production of radiation (not all produce the same in the tube head)
Characteristic radiation Electron that has been deflected continues to travel ejecting other electrons out of orbit until they loose their kinetic energy Energy in motion

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