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Knowledge Management in the Public Sector April, 2009

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1 Knowledge Management in the Public Sector April, 2009
Paul McDowall Knowledge Management Advisor Canada School of Public Service

2 “The purpose of management is the productivity of knowledge. ”
“The purpose of management is the productivity of knowledge.” Peter Drucker

3 Agenda How does Knowledge Management apply to the Canadian public sector? How has Knowledge Management been applied across the Canadian public sector? Lessons Learned in applying KM Where are we headed?

4 Where is the experience?
The DIKW Model DATA INFORMATION WISDOM Where is the experience? Where is the expertise? What can you retain? KNOWLEDGE

5 What is Wisdom? “We don’t receive wisdom. We must discover it for ourselves after a journey no one can take for us or spare us, for it is a point of view about things.” - Marcel Proust 5

6 Knowledge in Two Forms (M. Polanyi)
Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is articulated in formal language and which can be easily transmitted among individuals. It can be expressed in scientific formulae, codified procedures or a variety of other forms. It includes codified information, data, facts, records and documents, text, etc and is held in many different types of media. Tacit knowledge: knowledge that is embedded in individual experience such as perspective and inferential knowledge. Tacit knowledge includes insights, hunches, intuitions, and skills that are highly personal and hard to formalize, making them difficult to communicate or share with others. It can be ‘learned’ from someone often only by close association with them for a period of time. It represents the cognitive abilities of people.

7 Its about the Creation and Flow of Knowledge (Nonaka and Takeuchi)

8 Knowledge Spaces (D. Snowden)
3. Complex 2. Specialized Tacit knowledge Scientists, experience Find patterns, understand Technical documents Experts, consultants Design, develop systems Observations Explorers, innovators Explore, test Standards, manuals Bureaucrats, administrators Categorize, process 4. Chaotic 1. Routine Adapted from Snowden (2002)

9 Expertise Research Henley Business School (UK), R. McDermott
Expertise is the intuitive ability to improvise within a domain Expertise includes different types of knowledge - Specific, analytic, know-how, skill To “retain” expertise, shift from retaining to learning. Tools are scaffolding to aid thinking, not descriptions. Create opportunities for deliberate practice to get knowledge to settle into embodied habits. Developing expertise is not just acquiring knowledge, it is to learn how experts know and see through their eyes. 9

10 Expertise Research Henley Business School (UK), R. McDermott
Training Learning from experience Expertise Specific knowledge Analytic Personal know how Skill attention cues Technical/ scientific awareness operational organizational patterns options processes frameworks guidelines 10

11 The Johari Window Know Don’t Know Core competence Stewardship Gaps
Partnership or collaboration potential Lack of stewardship Missed opportunities Corporate amnesia Risks of change Corporate ‘ignorance’

12 The Outcomes are Effectiveness and Innovation
Knowledge and Learning Individual level Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Organizational level Effectiveness and Innovation Outcomes level

13 What is Knowledge Management?
Knowledge Management, or the management of an environment to facilitate the creation and use of knowledge for increased innovation and value, is a multi-disciplinary field that draws from theories in economics, sociology, philosophy, and psychology. It also engages the applied fields of information technology, information and library science, and business. This matrix gives KM dimensions that other management approaches lack and thus can provide comprehensive and practical management solutions. S. McIntyre and I. Moen, Vanguard, Issue 4, 2002

14 What is Knowledge Management?
Knowledge management refers to the processes of creating, capturing, transferring and using knowledge to enhance organizational performance. Knowledge management is most frequently associated with two particular types of activities: - those activities that attempt to document and appropriate knowledge that individuals have (sometimes called the codification of knowledge) and activities to disseminate that knowledge throughout the organization, and - those activities that facilitate human exchanges in which knowledge that is not codified (tacit knowledge) can be shared. Public Service Commission of Canada, 1998

15 What is Knowledge Management?
Knowledge Management is a multi-disciplinary approach to using and managing organizational knowledge that is based on sound Information management practices, focussed on organizational learning, recognizing the contribution and value of employees, and is enabled by technology. It is primarily concerned with the content of knowledge within the organization and how that knowledge can improve organizational performance. Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum, 1999

16 Knowledge Management Principles
Davenport/Prusak: Knowledge originates and resides in people's minds Knowledge sharing requires trust Knowledge sharing must be encouraged and rewarded Management support and resources are essential Knowledge is creative and should be encouraged to develop in unexpected ways Technology enables new knowledge behaviours Snowden: We know more than we say and we say more than we write down Knowledge can never be conscripted, it is only volunteered We only know what we know when we need to know it

17 A Knowledge-based Public Sector
A Changing Service Agenda - program effectiveness – results! - efficiency and innovation required – expenditure review - accountability - increased risk sensitivity A Changing Policy Agenda - policy re-focussing and rationalization A Changing Workforce - demographics A Changing Workforce Management Agenda - new legislation - public service renewal - core learning and professional development - recruitment and staffing - Talent Management - retention and workplace well-being

18 Some Common Myths There’s no problem replacing those departing employees, just hire more university recruits We just need to get people to document everything they know and store it in the knowledgebase We just need everyone to have personal training plans to become a learning organization Now that we have a training policy we will become a learning organization We need more technology for us to communicate better You can’t “manage” something as ephemeral as knowledge, so Knowledge Management doesn’t exist

19 Some Common Truths We need to break down the barriers between silos
We need to function more like a team We need to improve the decision-making process We need to be more responsive to changes in situations, drivers and priorities – knowledge mobilization We need to know how to deal with the HR issues of the future, and start to take action now – knowledge retention We need to be more efficient and effective in times of shrinking budgets We need to become more innovative and less risk averse We need to collaborate on horizontal issues

20 The Role of Knowledge in the Public Sector
A strategic organizational asset resident in people. e.g. human capital/capacity A major ingredient in strategy and policy formulation. e.g. insight, expertise, evidence, research, and intelligence A critical resource in program development and delivery. e.g. know-how, skills, competencies, capacities, experience A high value-added component of products and services. e.g. information, analysis, guidance, support to decision-making Knowledge is a part of our legacy - e.g. history, archives, records, library, wisdom, judgment

21 The Knowledge Advantage for the Canadian Public Service
Cultural and Societal advantage – public policy Collaborative advantage – working horizontally Creative advantage – innovation, R&D, S&T Citizen-Client advantage – service delivery, e-govt Co-opetition advantage – knowledge-based economy Cosmopolitan advantage – Canada and the world

22 A Knowledge-based Public Sector
“We don’t make widgets, we manage knowledge, that’s what government people, public sector people do and when you are managing knowledge your number one tool is learning.“ Clerk of the Privy Council’s Sixth Annual Report, 1998 “Traditional organizations built around activities and inputs are getting in the way of results and outcomes. A results-based organization requires a new management model. People and Knowledge Management are two essential cornerstones of a new public sector management model” COSO Learning and Development Committee Progress Report, July 2002

23 The Challenge for the Public Sector
“Loss of vital knowledge and experience is taking its toll on Canada’s cherished institutions – the Public Service of Canada in particular. Veteran employees are retiring in unprecedented numbers. Continual change and organizational churn are now the norm. New technologies allow us to store vast amounts of information, but also to misplace vast amounts of information. We, as an institution, are forgetting important lessons from the past… Preserving knowledge is a core responsibility of every manager… There are no longer any excuses for doing nothing.” François Guimont, Chair, CSPS Action-Research Roundtable on Organizational Memory (from Lost & Found A Smart-Practice Guide to Managing Organizational Memory, April, 2007)

24 A Knowledge-based Public Sector
“In the coming years, I will be looking to deputies and agency heads to ensure that newly recruited public servants can benefit from the accumulated knowledge of their more experienced colleagues through more effective programs of Knowledge Management and knowledge transfer. This is another area where departments and agencies have much to learn from one another.“ Clerk of the Privy Council’s Sixteenth Annual Report, 2009

25 The Daunting Dozen (Peter Stoyko)
Organizational Churn Decline of Record Keeping Employee Turnover Ambiguous Management Responsibility Wave of Retirements Inadequate Information Systems Self-Centred Workflows Heavy Workloads Lack of Awareness Denigration of History Externalization of Functions Rarity of Disciplined Reflection

26 IPAC Deputy Minister Survey

27 The Public Service Demographic Position: Average age of new public
servants is 36 years More than half of all public servants are 45+ Average age of new EXs is 46 Average age of executives is 50+ Executives who can retire: 18% ADMs who can retire with non-reduced pensions: 28.5% 10% of public servants have more than 30 yrs service 8% of public servants have 35 yrs service or more 20% of public servants will leave by Knowledge-based workers comprise 58% of core public service population, a 17% increase since the mid-1990s

28 Management Accountability Framework
“The department manages through continuous innovation and transformation, promotes organizational learning, values corporate knowledge, and learns from its performance”

29 Agenda How does Knowledge Management apply to the Canadian public sector? How has Knowledge Management been applied across the Canadian public sector? Lessons Learned in applying KM Where are we headed?

30 Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum
Our Raison d’être: The Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum (IKMF) creates an exploratory environment that stimulates Knowledge Management (KM) practice in the public sector.  As a community of practice, the IKMF creates a safe environment for reflection, discovery, dialogue and innovation through the sharing of experiences, practices and insights between practitioners and those interested in KM.  The objectives of the Forum are: to encourage dialogue and collaboration between colleagues from knowledge-intensive communities to focus on and share experiences in the implementation of knowledge management in the public sector to be a centre of excellence and expertise in the development and use of knowledge management in the public sector

31 KM Across the Canadian Public Sector
Most have tried Science-based (Environment, Health, Nat’l Resources, National Research Council, SSHRC, HRSDC) Operational (Public Works) International Development (CIDA, Bellanet) Military and Security (DND, DRDC, RCMP, PSEPC) Central Agencies and organizations (OAG, TBS, PSC, PSHRMAC, CSPS) Financial and Economic (Bank of Canada, EDC) Legal (Justice) Overall, limited long-term (>3yr) sustainable impact Political/public policy drivers Mobility across the system at ALL levels, esp. senior managers Myths and misconceptions Turf Costs – hard costs vs soft costs Technology Business focus

32 Knowledge Management for TBS
Knowledge Management Enablers Critical Knowledge Areas for TBS Leadership & Planning Financial Resource Management Practices TBS Knowledge (organization, people, processes, etc) Human Resource Management Practices Client/dep’t Knowledge (business, issues, history, etc) TBS Priorities & Core Business Domain Knowledge (policy and subject matter areas) Government Knowledge (Machinery of Gov’t - who, how, when) Collaboration & communication Professional Development General Knowledge (skills, competencies, techniques) Supportive Technology Staff Training Information Management Practices

33 Inukshuk: Defence Knowledge Model
Measurement Internalization Socialization Externalization Combination Process Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Foundation Leadership Technology Culture Inukshuk: “likeness of a person” (essential component of KM) Identify opportunities Guide leaders Very Canadian Every Inukshuk is different

34 KM at National Defence

35 Defence Research and Development CRTI
KM Approach* *Nonaka, I. and H. Takeuchi. The Knowledge Creating Company. New York: Oxford, 1995. Explicit Tacit Socialization Externalization Exercises Clusters First Responder Workshops After action reviews Symposia Workshops Tech Demos Competency Map Tacit Tacit Lessons learned New Protocols Documents/Reports Communications Portal Databases Info Management Exercises Shared Experience Training Explicit Internalization: Combination:

36 Environment Canada

37 Office of the Auditor General
People Work Done Knowledge tools Gather/share Decide/act Contribute experience We want people to get to the knowledge and tools needed to do the work as quickly and intuitively as possible

38 NRCan Canadian Forestry Service
Knowledge Management Capacity Building Organizational Context Resources Infra- structure Content Gover-nance Culture Learning In this diagram, two of the KM dimensions have been divided into progressively smaller units - sufficient to please any bureaucrat. Each dimension is divided into three goals and then into nine program-level components. A more detailed framework has been published that includes 45 project-scale activities. As you can see, knowledge management is about a lot more than Government On-Line (dissemination). To do that one highly visible activity, one needs most of the framework shown here. Funds People Time Technology Systems Management Acquisition Production Dissemination Vision Direction Commitment Change Sharing Controlling Education Skills Experience

39 Natural Resources Canada
Content Tools Organization People Learning, motivation, rewards, incentives Processes roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources lessons learned, best practices, work routines forestry data, information & knowledge infrastructure & systems to capture, store, share content

40 Natural Resources Canada: What is Knowledge management?

41 The Raison D’être for Science in Government
Knowledge Services The Raison D’être for Science in Government Albert Simard Problem: There are no generally-accepted definitions or understanding of knowledge services Solution: Describe science-related programs in Natural Resources Canada in the context of Government of Canada service transformation. See also:

42 Natural Resources Canada Northstar (strategy) and Knowledge Management
to integrate our knowledge

43 KM: A Key Corporate Strategy Involving Everyone
HRSDC A networked approach will enable us to reach out at all levels, and to link, share, and learn from specialists and all functional areas of the department as well as from external experts. It will also enable staff to shape change, and take ownership in the development of a new organizational knowledge culture. Management Services Human Resources Services Communication Services Core KM Team Dedicated, full-time team championing and developing KM. External Networks of Experts, Partners & Stakeholders HRSD Knowledge Management Initiative External Networks of Experts, Partners & Stakeholders Integration & Transformation Teams EX Action Learning Group Administrative Services Systems Services HRSD KM Working Group Branch representatives that work to mutually support DM priorities on KM. Share & exchange with Core KM Team and leverage knowledge capacities. Service Canada Regional Offices Comptrollership & Financial Management Services Information Management Services

44 HRSDC Vision and Guiding Principles
To position HRSD as Canada’s leader in the creation, management, preservation, exchange, and use of knowledge on human resources and social development issues. Our people, their knowledge and their collective wisdom, are essential resources that support the services we provide to individuals, families, businesses, employers, governments, and communities. Knowledge, experience and learning are assets to be shared internally and externally in all of our relationships. Active engagement of, and dialogue with, citizens, partners and stakeholders are key to ensuring our policies, programs and services respond to the needs of Canadians and serve the public good. Our work environment is one that attracts and nurtures people, fosters teamwork, and exemplifies a culture where knowledge is valued, supported and rewarded. Trust and collaboration at all levels of our organization are fundamental to our success.

45 What is KM? HRSDC Building our knowledge base and relationships.
Storing, preserving and accessing our stock of knowledge, identifying gaps, and creating new knowledge. Engaging, and partnering, with stakeholders to learn from experiences and maximize investments. Sharing, exchanging, and disseminating knowledge internally and externally. Using knowledge for policy/program development, service delivery, and supporting decision-making. Knowledge Base & Relationships People Organization Supporting innovation, creativity, involvement, and participation among people. Development opportunities. Training. Assistive and accessible technologies & tools. Venues (conferences, forums, seminars, discussion groups, etc.) to promote creating, preserving, sharing, and using knowledge. Developing an organizational culture that values knowledge. Champion practices that create, store, preserve, share, and use knowledge. Quality standards; governance processes. Performance monitoring and reporting. Communication, education, and promotion.

46 Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework
Technology infrastructure that enables easy “in-process” content capture and access, effective collaboration and transparent management Strategic Outcome: Enhanced organizational capacity to capture, access, and exchange knowledge Knowledge Access Knowledge Exchange “Knowledge Conscious” Management / Leadership Easy and effective access to quality information and data, as well as people with “know-how”, when and where it is needed Effective sharing and exchange of knowledge and information, both within and beyond the organization CONTENT COLLABORATION

47 Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework
Desired End-State Information management policies, roles and responsibilities that are clear and understood by everyone Standard tools to support effective knowledge access and exchange are in place, and everyone knows how to use them A collaborative work environment with practices and processes that support productive and purposeful knowledge sharing

48 Desired End-State for the Medium Term
Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework Desired End-State for the Medium Term Information management policies, roles and responsibilities are clear and understood by everyone Existing tools are leveraged to support good information management practices and staff are using them A clear vision and strategy for the next Medium Term exists Policy Content and Collaboration Strategy Tools Managers and staff have the techniques and support needed to ensure critical knowledge is not lost Support Program Governance is effectively supporting the Knowledge Program

49 Mandate and Objectives of the National Crime Prevention Centre – Public Safety
The NCPC uses a crime prevention through social development approach, which aims to tackle crime by addressing its root causes. NCPC Objectives: Increase sustainable community action in support of CPSD Develop and share knowledge of effective crime prevention strategies Coordinate multi-level support for crime prevention efforts The National Crime Prevention Strategy is built on the common sense principle that the surest way to reduce crime is to focus on the factors that put individuals at risk -- factors such as family violence, school problems and drug abuse. Its goal is to develop community-based responses to crime, with a particular emphasis on children and youth, Aboriginal people and women. The National Crime Prevention Strategy provides communities with the tools, knowledge and support they need to deal with the causes of crime. Crime Prevention Through Social Development Crime prevention through social development (also referred to as CPSD) is a long-term, proactive approach. It is directed at removing those personal, social and economic factors that lead some individuals to engage in criminal acts or to become victims of crime. This approach aims at strengthening the quality of life for individuals, families and communities. CPSD is intended to increase positive attitudes or behaviours in individuals by influencing their experiences in areas such as family, life, education, employment, housing and/or recreation. While recognizing that societal influences such as poverty, gender inequality, media violence, racism, and discrimination are part of the crime prevention context, CPSD tends to concentrate on secondary prevention measures. This involves focusing on the many risk factors that contribute to involvement with crime. Some key examples include: inadequate living conditions, such as poor housing and unstable situations; family factors, such as poor or inadequate parenting, parental criminality, and parental substance abuse; individual personality and behavioural factors, such as “cognitive deficits” including a lack of problem-solving skills, self-control, critical reasoning, judgement and failure to consider the consequences of behaviour, hyperactivity, as well as the early onset of aggressive behaviour; peer association, such as relationships with friends who follow a delinquent or criminal lifestyle; school-related factors, such as poor educational achievement and truancy, as well as deficient school environments, and exclusionary policies; Crime prevention through social development seeks to foster “protective factors” such as positive family support that may mitigate situations of risk or disadvantage which contribute to crime and victimization. These protective factors also tend to reduce the risk of harm. CPSD makes connections beyond the traditional criminal justice sphere by recognizing the important role that policies, programs, and services such as social housing, education, health, income security, and social services play in preventing crime. Consequently, CPSD involves a wide range of players from various sectors working together to prevent crime problems. Because CPSD focuses on the social development end of the crime prevention equation, it can take time for the crime prevention benefits to accrue. For example, children and youth are the focus of many CPSD strategies. Some of the best known CPSD programs involve early intervention with children at risk and their parents. Programs such as the Perry Pre-School Project in Michigan and a new generation of “Headstart” programs in Canada (such as Moncton Headstart and Aboriginal Headstart) create supportive environments for children who are at potential risk of later life criminality. These programs demonstrate the ways in which supportive strategies can significantly improve child development, educational achievement and social adjustment, and reduce the likelihood of later involvement in crime. Develop community-based responses and support direct action by communities, especially those most affected. Focus on new and enhanced partnerships with stakeholders, such as local government, law enforcement agencies, the private and academic sectors, to broaden impact and learning Commit to synthesize relevant knowledge and experiences from Canadian communities, and information exchanges between these communities. The renewed NCPC will collaborate with partners at various levels to help mobilize and educate Canadians through: Developing and supporting research and evaluation, policy, and knowledge development on NCPC’s priority groups, including: children and youth, Aboriginal Peoples, and women; and Funding community-based projects through NCPC’s three funding programs, specifically, the Crime Prevention Action Fund (CPAF), the Research and Knowledge Development Fund (RKDF), and the Police, Corrections and Communities Fund (PCCF).

50 NCPC Knowledge Functions - Backdrop
Background Increasing demand for evidence based practice Increasing requirement for accountability Increasing need for clear federal role 8 years of experience and funded projects Belief that every project funded has something to add to the body of evidence on crime prevention Little attention in past to results and lessons learned Organization downsize and reorganization Challenges Knowledge identified as one of three key pillars Outcomes: improved knowledge of effective crime prevention approaches improved integration of evidence-based crime prevention into policies and practices NCPC as knowledge broker and champion of evidence-based solutions for community safety problems

51 Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario


53 Objectives Overview: Transport Canada’s Knowledge Transfer (KT) Project (1999 – 2002) Civil Aviation’s Knowledge Transfer (KT) Project (2008 – )

54 Transport Canada’s KT Project – Major Findings
“An important conclusion of the KT project was that TC’s knowledge transfer efforts should not rely exclusively on informatics.” (How to Prevent Knowledge Collapse – Transport Canada’s approach to its critical subject matter experts: knowledge transfer and succession planning challenges, 2004)

55 Civil Aviation’s KT Project - How it Started
Study “An Exploration of Knowledge Transfer in Transport Canada Civil Aviation” presented to National Civil Aviation Management Executive (NCAMX) (May, 2007) Terms of Reference approved by NCAMX (Oct, 2007) 1st Working Group Face-to-Face Workshop (Oct, 2008) 2nd Working Group Face-to-Face Workshop (scheduled for mid-Jan, 2009)

56 Civil Aviation’s KT Project – Strategic Plan
Mission: To develop a knowledge transfer program within TCCA to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of our current and future program Vision: Knowledge transfer is integrated in our way of doing business Goals: Define knowledge transfer pressures Obtain on-going management commitment Engage employees

57 Civil Aviation’s KT Project - Project Deliverables
The Working Group will develop: a methodology for the identification of TCCA critical SMEs and their successors (i.e. a succession planning system). a methodology for the transfer of critical knowledge from SMEs to their successors (i.e. KT tools). a tracking mechanism. a performance measurement tool. a communication plan, including education on the benefits for knowledge transfer an implementation plan

58 The Common PPT Framework
People Content Process Technology


60 Agenda How does Knowledge Management apply to the Canadian public sector? How has Knowledge Management been applied across the Canadian public sector? Lessons Learned in applying KM Where are we headed?

61 Knowledge Management is NOT….
working harder

62 Knowledge Management is NOT….
about technology

63 KM Value Chain Who is involved in the KM Value Chain? Leaders Managers
Staff/employees Support groups Clients/customers Suppliers Stakeholders

64 KM Approaches – the Good, the Bad, …
Strategic and/or tactical KM communities of practice, learning networks, functional communities, collaborative arrangements organizational learning & knowledge sharing (Lessons learned, debriefs, AARs, coaching, organizational learning events) organizational analysis (knowledge mapping/auditing, Social Network Analysis) knowledge creation/innovation – knowledge capture, knowledge transfer team-based management process improvement HR/workplace and workforce initiatives (succession planning, Workplace Well-being) IT (intranets, group/collaborative software, portals, yellow pages, expert locators, virtual teams, conferencing, search tools) Training & Dev (individual, team) dM/IM/RM/DM (data, information, records and document management)

65 Smart-Practice Tools (Peter Stoyko)
After Action Reviews Exit Interviews Learning Histories Lessons Learned Inventories Communities of Practice Guided Learning (Action Learning, etc) Learning Events (Organizational Learning, etc) Job Overlap Phased Retirement Network Based Solutions (Expert Locator systems) Externalization of Functions Document Repositories and Portals Automation Self-Service Knowledge Centres

66 Some Other Practices/Tools
Visualization Storytelling Social Network Analysis Succession Planning/mentoring/coaching K-risk assessment, knowledge audits KM Maturity Assessment and benchmarking Concept Mapping Mindmapping Business Process A/R/M Simulation techniques Knowledge Retention Learning Labs Expert location/’Ask the Expert” Data mining/ analysis…

67 Communities of Practice What are they?
“a group of people who share a concern, a set of problems or a passion about a topic and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis” Wenger, McDermott and Snyder A group of people that shares knowledge, learns together and develops common / improved practices. They have committed themselves to the exploration and advancement of the ‘practice’ of the community. They recognize the value in what each other knows and they need to stay current on the topic. The sense of ‘community’ enables a learning environment to exist where practitioners of varying knowledge, skill, or experience levels can openly share and build on each others’ knowledge and ideas in a climate of trust and respect.

68 Communities of Practice How are they different from Teams?
Source: KM Review

69 Information Technology

70 Information Technology

71 Information Technology
© Etienne Wenger Communities of practice Knowledge exchange Social structures Fleeting interactions Knowledge bases Synchronous interactions Discussion groups Access to expertise Project spaces Knowledge worker’s desktop Online communities E-learning spaces Ongoing integration of work and knowledge Intraspect Engenia K-station Infoworkspace Communispace PlaceWare eRoom QuickPlace Livelink NetMeeting Organik Question Quiq TalkCity Evoke Webex eProject Blaxxun eGroups (YahooGroups) eCircle (AltaVista) Athenium Webcrossing Teamware Plaza Tacit Coolboard Ichat Buzzpower StuffinCommon Prospero Webboard WeTalk PowWow Motet PeopleLink Sharenet virtualteams Prism Centra Interwise LearningSpace VirtualMeeting MeetPlace Genesys SameTime InterCommunity Discovery RealCommunities Teamroom ConferenceRoom BlackBoard ArsDigita Caucus Bungo SharedPlanet OpenItems eShare OpenTopic UBB AskMe Clerity Knexa DocuShare Documentum Autonomy Geneva Oracle Work Instruction Documents Conversation Verity Webfair Cassiopeia iTeam Vignette Abridge Mongoose PlumTree Tapped-in Experience Notes OneStopMeeting Marratech Wiki WebCT Simplify Groove KnowledgeLead FirstClass iCohere iMeet CommunityZero PeopleNet NinthHouse Hyperwave

72 “Web 2.0 describes the changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aim to enhance creativity, communications, secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the web. Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of web culture communities and hosted services, such as social-networking sites, video sharing sites, wikis, blogs, and folksonomies.” (Wikipedia)

73 Clusty bookmarks wiki’s search engines social networks Surveys & poles
instant messaging Clusty slides sharing mail groups video sharing photo sharing calendars audio sharing Netvibes blogs aggregators presences





78 Web 1.0 Web 2.0 - static content - dynamic content
- controlled push - chaotic pull - data and information - knowledge, expertise - impersonal - personalized - individual usage - social/community engagement - one-way publishing - collaboration - controlled - emergent - vendor dependence - platform-neutral - commerce - people Enterprise Enterprise 2.0 - hierarchical - empowered/flattened - risk sensitive - innovative - role/position oriented - knowledge-enabled

79 Key Lessons Learned Focus KM on strategic and tactical business needs
Senior leadership needs to own it, champion it and lead by example Develop strong relationships with allies (Business managers, OD, HR, IM, IT,…) Develop an integrated approach/strategy tied directly to the business strategy Build on what is working well Engage all levels in the change – ideas and empowerment Be willing to take some risks – learn from failures Fix/reduce known problems – start at the point of pain Make better use of tools, both existing tools and new ones Remember the KM principles Keep building on success Demonstrate servant leadership Plan and manage for change

80 “That’s the way we do things around here”
What are the CSFs? Business drivers Leadership – clear and motivating vision, ownership, and exercised at all levels Employee Engagement Organizational and Behavioural change – influencing corporate culture Sustainable improvement – transformative commitment for the long-term, ‘stable’ organization “That’s the way we do things around here”

81 “Don’ts” for Knowledge Management
Don’t treat KM as a project, a one-off, an IT “solution”, or a pilot it’s part of the management discipline! Don’t focus on KM; focus on the business needs and use KM as a means to help you manage your way there (only if needed) Don’t underestimate the scope, timeframes and effort, depending upon your needs this is organizational change towards maturity as a knowledge-intensive organization

82 Knowledge Retention/Transfer
Knowledge Transfer => Pre-retirement knowledge capture (e.g. Office of the Commission of Official Languages, TBS, CPSA) APQC: Benchmarking Best-Practice Research Study The best way to retain valuable knowledge in the face of attrition or downsizing is to build and sustain systemic knowledge management approaches. To identify what knowledge was critical to capture, 89 percent of the partners had discussions with senior management and interviews with employees or subject matter experts.

83 Knowledge Retention/Transfer - APQC
The most effective way to capture, retain, and transfer valuable knowledge is to embed that process into the work flow. The study partners rely on communities of practice to embed and transfer organizational knowledge. Partners remarked that tacit knowledge-the most valuable and difficult knowledge to distil in any organization-is best retained through communities of practice and networks. Cultural changes require understanding the impact of formal evaluation and performance, creating rewards and awards for teamwork, understanding the need for knowledge expositions and fairs (the creation of an innovation marketplace), and sharing stories that emphasize the desired knowledge-sharing behavior. Most organizations use common basic tools, such as collaborative applications, data repositories, , and videoconferencing for knowledge retention. Best-practice organizations typically have three critical elements in their knowledge management and retention support structures: senior management support, a central knowledge management support group, and the involvement of different business units or functions in the initiative.

84 Knowledge Retention/Transfer - APQC
The reported costs for knowledge retention initiatives are less than knowledge management initiatives in APQC's prior studies, apparently due to the fact that best-practice organizations build on knowledge management tools and skills already in place and often build retention activities into the existing work flow. The knowledge management groups at study partners often work closely with human resources teams to design and implement knowledge retention strategies, including hiring employees who will work effectively in a knowledge-sharing environment.. Partners and sponsors reported that the most effective methods to measure the success of knowledge transfer are conducting user surveys, tracking the number of knowledge objects accessed and used, tracking knowledge transfer activities, and capturing KM success meaningful stories. Best-practice organizations demonstrate a link between knowledge management and organizational learning.

85 Knowledge Retention/Transfer Keys
What is the problem? What needs to be done? What can I do? What can we do?

86 Succession Planning Keys to Consider (Institute for Employment Studies, UK)

87 Ten Practical Tips for Succession Planning (IES)
Engage with senior managers at the start Focus on easily defined groups Start with a fairly small population Design in how information flows Don’t go overboard on assessing potential Ensure collective management agreement Communicate Tailor career development HR leaders should take a serious role Hang in there.

88 Agenda How does Knowledge Management apply to the Canadian public sector? How has Knowledge Management been applied across the Canadian public sector? Lessons Learned in applying KM Where are we headed?

89 KM Evolution From To Knowledge Capture Knowledge Mobilization
Documents and repositories Communities Formal strategies Emergent strategies Separate function/organization The way we do things…

90 Foresight 2020 Report

91 Where are we headed? The Public Service Renewal Agenda
Principles Supporting Renewal Renewal is not a top-down exercise: respect and involve employees at all levels Prioritize and focus: set goals and priorities that are relevant, ambitious and realistic Measurement matters: set benchmarks for performance and measure progress Excellence should be our hallmark: need to manage for it, to it Be flexible: learn through process of change, and be prepared to adjust course as we learn Fourteenth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada, April 2007,

92 Where are we headed? The Public Service Renewal Agenda
Short and Medium Term Priorities Planning – integrated HR and business planning Recruitment, incl. branding Employee Development – learning, ADM talent management Enabling Infrastructure Longer-term Objectives The human resources system Innovation and risk management Leadership Fourteenth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada, April 2007,

93 Where are we headed? The Public Service Renewal Agenda
“To be successful, our approach to renewal has to be targeted, pragmatic, and results-oriented. We need to: rethink our recruitment model; the Public Service of Canada cannot be a passive recruiter of talent; rethink our development model; to manage for excellence and focus on leadership;  rethink the jobs-for-life and one-size-fits-all model; to encourage more interchanges with the private sector; more mid-career and end-of-first-career recruitment; and,  rethink the public service brand; focus on excellence, unique careers and the opportunity to make a difference for your country.” The Clerk of the Privy Council and Secretary to the Cabinet McMaster-Ottawa Alumni Fall Speaker Series, October 26, 2006

94 Canada School of Public Service Leadership Framework
Empowered Individuals Developed Organizations Strong Networks Connected & Aligned Organizations External Individuals Internal Organizations Strengthened Individual Capacity Public Service Management Excellence Effective Partnerships Enhanced Collaboration

95 Government of Canada Key Leadership Competencies
Canada Public Service Agency,

96 What Does Excellence look like?

97 What Does Excellence look like?

98 What Does Excellence look like?
EFQM Excellence Model Ibero-American Excellence Model (IEM)

99 Other Organizational Excellence Models
Center for Organizational Excellence Australian Business Excellence Framework (SAI) Canadian Framework for Business Excellence (NQI)

100 Other Organizational Excellence Models
Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence Japan Quality model Singapore Quality Award Framework

101 Other Organizational Excellence Models
Seimens AG KM Maturity Model European KM Framework

102 Key Characteristics of Excellence Models
The models are integrative and holistic in nature The focus is on the organization as a whole (a ‘systems’ view) All components have a dynamic interplay in the strategic change approach to achieve results Leadership is a key component The Leadership function is embedded and fostered at all levels Leadership development is as closely linked to operations as it is to strategy Leadership typically entails modern facilitative approaches vs control-oriented doctrinal approaches Knowledge and Learning are key enablers knowledge and the contribution of people as knowledge-workers is essential for knowledge-based results Knowledge Management is an enabling strategy for organizational excellence Organizational learning vs individual learning; formal and informal learning; blended learning; experiential learning; community learning; etc

103 “In the future, we won’t call it ‘Knowledge Management’,…”
Gartner Group

104 …we’ll call it Management” Gartner Group
“In the future, we won’t call it Knowledge Management,… …we’ll call it Management” Gartner Group

105 Paul McDowall Knowledge Management Advisor
Canada School of Public Service 373 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N6Z2, Canada Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum:

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