Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Management in the Public Sector April, 2009"— Presentation transcript:
1 Knowledge Management in the Public Sector April, 2009 Paul McDowallKnowledge Management AdvisorCanada School of Public Service
2 “The purpose of management is the productivity of knowledge. ” “The purpose of management is the productivity of knowledge.” Peter Drucker
3 AgendaHow does Knowledge Management apply to the Canadian public sector?How has Knowledge Management been applied across the Canadian public sector?Lessons Learned in applying KMWhere are we headed?
4 Where is the experience? The DIKW ModelDATAINFORMATIONWISDOMWhere is the experience?Where is the expertise?What can you retain?KNOWLEDGE
5 What is Wisdom?“We don’t receive wisdom. We must discover it for ourselves after a journey no one can take for us or spare us, for it is a point of view about things.”- Marcel Proust5
6 Knowledge in Two Forms (M. Polanyi) Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is articulated in formal language and which can be easily transmitted among individuals. It can be expressed in scientific formulae, codified procedures or a variety of other forms. It includes codified information, data, facts, records and documents, text, etc and is held in many different types of media.Tacit knowledge: knowledge that is embedded in individual experience such as perspective and inferential knowledge. Tacit knowledge includes insights, hunches, intuitions, and skills that are highly personal and hard to formalize, making them difficult to communicate or share with others. It can be ‘learned’ from someone often only by close association with them for a period of time. It represents the cognitive abilities of people.
7 Its about the Creation and Flow of Knowledge (Nonaka and Takeuchi)
9 Expertise Research Henley Business School (UK), R. McDermott Expertise is the intuitive ability to improvise within a domainExpertise includes different types of knowledge- Specific, analytic, know-how, skillTo “retain” expertise, shift from retaining to learning.Tools are scaffolding to aid thinking, not descriptions.Create opportunities for deliberate practice to get knowledge to settle into embodied habits.Developing expertise is not just acquiring knowledge,it is to learn how experts know and see through their eyes.9
10 Expertise Research Henley Business School (UK), R. McDermott TrainingLearning from experienceExpertiseSpecificknowledgeAnalyticPersonalknow howSkillattentioncuesTechnical/scientificawarenessoperationalorganizationalpatternsoptionsprocessesframeworksguidelines10
11 The Johari Window Know Don’t Know Core competence Stewardship Gaps Partnership or collaboration potentialLack of stewardshipMissed opportunitiesCorporate amnesiaRisks of changeCorporate ‘ignorance’
12 The Outcomes are Effectiveness and Innovation Knowledge and LearningIndividual levelKnowledge Managementand Organizational LearningOrganizational levelEffectiveness and InnovationOutcomes level
13 What is Knowledge Management? Knowledge Management, or the management of an environment to facilitate the creation and use of knowledge for increased innovation and value, is a multi-disciplinary field that draws from theories in economics, sociology, philosophy, and psychology. It also engages the applied fields of information technology, information and library science, and business. This matrix gives KM dimensions that other management approaches lack and thus can provide comprehensive and practical management solutions.S. McIntyre and I. Moen, Vanguard, Issue 4, 2002
14 What is Knowledge Management? Knowledge management refers to the processes of creating, capturing, transferring and using knowledge to enhance organizational performance. Knowledge management is most frequently associated with two particular types of activities:- those activities that attempt to document and appropriate knowledge that individuals have (sometimes called the codification of knowledge) and activities to disseminate that knowledge throughout the organization, and- those activities that facilitate human exchanges in which knowledge that is not codified (tacit knowledge) can be shared.Public Service Commission of Canada, 1998
15 What is Knowledge Management? Knowledge Management is a multi-disciplinary approach to usingand managing organizational knowledge that is based on soundInformation management practices, focussed on organizationallearning, recognizing the contribution and value of employees, andis enabled by technology. It is primarily concerned with the contentof knowledge within the organization and how that knowledge canimprove organizational performance.Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum, 1999
16 Knowledge Management Principles Davenport/Prusak:Knowledge originates and resides in people's mindsKnowledge sharing requires trustKnowledge sharing must be encouraged and rewardedManagement support and resources are essentialKnowledge is creative and should be encouraged to develop in unexpected waysTechnology enables new knowledge behavioursSnowden:We know more than we say and we say more than we write downKnowledge can never be conscripted, it is only volunteeredWe only know what we know when we need to know it
17 A Knowledge-based Public Sector A Changing Service Agenda- program effectiveness – results!- efficiency and innovation required – expenditure review- accountability- increased risk sensitivityA Changing Policy Agenda- policy re-focussing and rationalizationA Changing Workforce - demographicsA Changing Workforce Management Agenda- new legislation- public service renewal- core learning and professional development- recruitment and staffing - Talent Management- retention and workplace well-being
18 Some Common MythsThere’s no problem replacing those departing employees, just hire more university recruitsWe just need to get people to document everything they know and store it in the knowledgebaseWe just need everyone to have personal training plans to become a learning organizationNow that we have a training policy we will become a learning organizationWe need more technology for us to communicate betterYou can’t “manage” something as ephemeral as knowledge, so Knowledge Management doesn’t exist
19 Some Common Truths We need to break down the barriers between silos We need to function more like a teamWe need to improve the decision-making processWe need to be more responsive to changes in situations, drivers and priorities – knowledge mobilizationWe need to know how to deal with the HR issues of the future, and start to take action now – knowledge retentionWe need to be more efficient and effective in times of shrinking budgetsWe need to become more innovative and less risk averseWe need to collaborate on horizontal issues
20 The Role of Knowledge in the Public Sector A strategic organizational asset resident in people.e.g. human capital/capacityA major ingredient in strategy and policy formulation.e.g. insight, expertise, evidence, research, and intelligenceA critical resource in program development and delivery.e.g. know-how, skills, competencies, capacities, experienceA high value-added component of products and services.e.g. information, analysis, guidance, support to decision-makingKnowledge is a part of our legacy- e.g. history, archives, records, library, wisdom, judgment
21 The Knowledge Advantage for the Canadian Public Service Cultural and Societal advantage – public policyCollaborative advantage – working horizontallyCreative advantage – innovation, R&D, S&TCitizen-Client advantage – service delivery, e-govtCo-opetition advantage – knowledge-based economyCosmopolitan advantage – Canada and the world
22 A Knowledge-based Public Sector “We don’t make widgets, we manage knowledge, that’s what government people, public sector people do and when you are managing knowledge your number one tool is learning.“Clerk of the Privy Council’s Sixth Annual Report, 1998“Traditional organizations built around activities and inputs are getting in the way of results and outcomes. A results-based organization requires a new management model. People and Knowledge Management are two essential cornerstones of a new public sector management model”COSO Learning and Development Committee Progress Report, July 2002
23 The Challenge for the Public Sector “Loss of vital knowledge and experience is taking its toll on Canada’s cherished institutions – the Public Service of Canada in particular. Veteran employees are retiring in unprecedented numbers. Continual change and organizational churn are now the norm. New technologies allow us to store vast amounts of information, but also to misplace vast amounts of information. We, as an institution, are forgetting important lessons from the past…Preserving knowledge is a core responsibility of every manager…There are no longer any excuses for doing nothing.”François Guimont, Chair, CSPS Action-Research Roundtable on Organizational Memory(from Lost & Found A Smart-Practice Guide to Managing Organizational Memory, April, 2007)
24 A Knowledge-based Public Sector “In the coming years, I will be looking to deputies and agency heads to ensure that newly recruited public servants can benefit from the accumulated knowledge of their more experienced colleagues through more effective programs of Knowledge Management and knowledge transfer. This is another area where departments and agencies have much to learn from one another.“Clerk of the Privy Council’s Sixteenth Annual Report, 2009
25 The Daunting Dozen (Peter Stoyko) Organizational ChurnDecline of Record KeepingEmployee TurnoverAmbiguous Management ResponsibilityWave of RetirementsInadequate Information SystemsSelf-Centred WorkflowsHeavy WorkloadsLack of AwarenessDenigration of HistoryExternalization of FunctionsRarity of Disciplined Reflection
27 The Public Service Demographic Position: Average age of new public servants is 36 yearsMore than half of all publicservants are 45+Average age of new EXs is 46Average age of executives is 50+Executives who can retire: 18%ADMs who can retire with non-reduced pensions: 28.5%10% of public servants have more than 30 yrs service8% of public servants have 35 yrs service or more20% of public servants will leave byKnowledge-based workers comprise 58% of core public service population, a 17% increase since the mid-1990s
28 Management Accountability Framework “The department manages through continuous innovation and transformation, promotes organizational learning, values corporate knowledge, and learns from its performance”
29 AgendaHow does Knowledge Management apply to the Canadian public sector?How has Knowledge Management been applied across the Canadian public sector?Lessons Learned in applying KMWhere are we headed?
30 Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum Our Raison d’être:The Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum (IKMF) creates an exploratory environment that stimulates Knowledge Management (KM) practice in the public sector. As a community of practice, the IKMF creates a safe environment for reflection, discovery, dialogue and innovation through the sharing of experiences, practices and insights between practitioners and those interested in KM. The objectives of the Forum are:to encourage dialogue and collaboration between colleagues from knowledge-intensive communities to focus on and share experiences in the implementation of knowledge management in the public sectorto be a centre of excellence and expertise in the development and use of knowledge management in the public sector
31 KM Across the Canadian Public Sector Most have triedScience-based (Environment, Health, Nat’l Resources, National Research Council, SSHRC, HRSDC)Operational (Public Works)International Development (CIDA, Bellanet)Military and Security (DND, DRDC, RCMP, PSEPC)Central Agencies and organizations (OAG, TBS, PSC, PSHRMAC, CSPS)Financial and Economic (Bank of Canada, EDC)Legal (Justice)Overall, limited long-term (>3yr) sustainable impactPolitical/public policy driversMobility across the system at ALL levels, esp. senior managersMyths and misconceptionsTurfCosts – hard costs vs soft costsTechnologyBusiness focus
33 Inukshuk: Defence Knowledge Model MeasurementInternalizationSocializationExternalizationCombinationProcessTacit KnowledgeExplicit KnowledgeFoundationLeadershipTechnologyCultureInukshuk:“likeness of a person” (essential component of KM)Identify opportunitiesGuide leadersVery CanadianEvery Inukshuk is different
35 Defence Research and Development CRTI KM Approach**Nonaka, I. and H. Takeuchi. The Knowledge Creating Company. New York: Oxford, 1995.ExplicitTacitSocializationExternalizationExercisesClustersFirstResponderWorkshopsAfter action reviewsSymposiaWorkshopsTech DemosCompetency MapTacitTacitLessons learnedNew ProtocolsDocuments/ReportsCommunicationsPortalDatabasesInfo ManagementExercisesSharedExperienceTrainingExplicitInternalization:Combination:
37 Office of the Auditor General PeopleWorkDoneKnowledgetoolsGather/shareDecide/actContributeexperienceWe want people to get to the knowledge and tools needed to do the work as quickly and intuitively as possible
38 NRCan Canadian Forestry Service KnowledgeManagementCapacityBuildingOrganizational ContextResourcesInfra-structureContentGover-nanceCultureLearningIn this diagram, two of the KM dimensions have been divided into progressively smaller units - sufficient to please any bureaucrat.Each dimension is divided into three goals and then into nine program-level components.A more detailed framework has been published that includes 45 project-scale activities.As you can see, knowledge management is about a lot more than Government On-Line (dissemination). To do that one highly visible activity, one needs most of the framework shown here.FundsPeopleTimeTechnologySystemsManagementAcquisitionProductionDisseminationVisionDirectionCommitmentChangeSharingControllingEducationSkillsExperience
39 Natural Resources Canada ContentToolsOrganizationPeopleLearning, motivation, rewards, incentivesProcessesroles, responsibilities, authorities, resourceslessons learned, best practices, work routinesforestry data, information & knowledgeinfrastructure & systems to capture, store, share content
40 Natural Resources Canada: What is Knowledge management?
41 The Raison D’être for Science in Government Knowledge ServicesThe Raison D’être for Science in GovernmentAlbert SimardProblem: There are no generally-accepted definitions or understanding of knowledge servicesSolution: Describe science-related programs in Natural Resources Canada in the context of Government of Canada service transformation.See also:
42 Natural Resources Canada Northstar (strategy) and Knowledge Management to integrate our knowledge
43 KM: A Key Corporate Strategy Involving Everyone HRSDCA networked approach will enable us to reach out at all levels, and to link, share, and learn from specialists and all functional areas of the department as well as from external experts.It will also enable staff to shape change, and take ownership in the development of a new organizational knowledge culture.Management ServicesHuman Resources ServicesCommunication ServicesCore KM TeamDedicated, full-time team championing and developing KM.External Networks of Experts, Partners & StakeholdersHRSDKnowledge ManagementInitiativeExternal Networks of Experts, Partners & StakeholdersIntegration & Transformation TeamsEXAction Learning GroupAdministrativeServicesSystems ServicesHRSD KM Working GroupBranch representatives that work tomutually support DM priorities on KM.Share & exchange with Core KM Teamand leverage knowledge capacities.Service Canada Regional OfficesComptrollership & Financial Management ServicesInformation Management Services
44 HRSDC Vision and Guiding Principles To position HRSD as Canada’s leader in thecreation, management, preservation, exchange, and use ofknowledge on human resources and social development issues.Our people, their knowledge and their collective wisdom, are essential resources that support the services we provide to individuals, families, businesses, employers, governments, and communities.Knowledge, experience and learning are assets to be shared internally and externally in all of our relationships.Active engagement of, and dialogue with, citizens, partners and stakeholders are key to ensuring our policies, programs and services respond to the needs of Canadians and serve the public good.Our work environment is one that attracts and nurtures people, fosters teamwork, and exemplifies a culture where knowledge is valued, supported and rewarded.Trust and collaboration at all levels of our organization are fundamental to our success.
45 What is KM? HRSDC Building our knowledge base and relationships. Storing, preserving and accessing our stock of knowledge, identifying gaps, and creating new knowledge.Engaging, and partnering, with stakeholders to learn from experiences and maximize investments.Sharing, exchanging, and disseminating knowledge internally and externally.Using knowledge for policy/program development, service delivery, and supporting decision-making.Knowledge Base& RelationshipsPeopleOrganizationSupporting innovation, creativity, involvement, and participation among people.Development opportunities.Training.Assistive and accessible technologies & tools.Venues (conferences, forums,seminars, discussion groups, etc.) topromote creating, preserving, sharing, and usingknowledge.Developing an organizational culturethat values knowledge.Champion practices that create,store, preserve, share, and use knowledge.Quality standards; governance processes.Performance monitoring and reporting.Communication, education,and promotion.
46 Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework Technology infrastructure that enables easy “in-process” content capture and access, effective collaboration and transparent managementStrategic Outcome: Enhanced organizational capacity to capture, access, and exchange knowledgeKnowledge AccessKnowledge Exchange“Knowledge Conscious” Management / LeadershipEasy and effective access to quality information and data, as well as people with “know-how”, when and where it is neededEffective sharing and exchange of knowledge and information, both within and beyond the organizationCONTENTCOLLABORATION
47 Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework Desired End-StateInformation management policies, roles and responsibilities that are clear and understood by everyoneStandard tools to support effective knowledge access and exchange are in place, and everyone knows how to use themA collaborative work environment with practices and processes that support productive and purposeful knowledge sharing
48 Desired End-State for the Medium Term Bank of Canada Knowledge Program FrameworkDesired End-State for the Medium TermInformation management policies, roles and responsibilities are clear and understood by everyoneExisting tools are leveraged to support good information management practices and staff are using themA clear vision and strategy for the next Medium Term existsPolicyContent andCollaborationStrategyToolsManagers and staff have the techniques and support needed to ensure critical knowledge is not lostSupportProgram Governance is effectively supporting the Knowledge Program
49 Mandate and Objectives of the National Crime Prevention Centre – Public Safety The NCPC uses a crime prevention through social development approach, which aims to tackle crime by addressing its root causes.NCPC Objectives:Increase sustainable community action in support of CPSDDevelop and share knowledge of effective crime prevention strategiesCoordinate multi-level support for crime prevention effortsThe National Crime Prevention Strategy is built on the common sense principle that the surest way to reduce crime is to focus on the factors that put individuals at risk -- factors such as family violence, school problems and drug abuse. Its goal is to develop community-based responses to crime, with a particular emphasis on children and youth, Aboriginal people and women. The National Crime Prevention Strategy provides communities with the tools, knowledge and support they need to deal with the causes of crime.Crime Prevention Through Social DevelopmentCrime prevention through social development (also referred to as CPSD) is a long-term, proactive approach. It is directed at removing those personal, social and economic factors that lead some individuals to engage in criminal acts or to become victims of crime.This approach aims at strengthening the quality of life for individuals, families and communities. CPSD is intended to increase positive attitudes or behaviours in individuals by influencing their experiences in areas such as family, life, education, employment, housing and/or recreation.While recognizing that societal influences such as poverty, gender inequality, media violence, racism, and discrimination are part of the crime prevention context, CPSD tends to concentrate on secondary prevention measures. This involves focusing on the many risk factors that contribute to involvement with crime. Some key examples include:inadequate living conditions, such as poor housing and unstable situations;family factors, such as poor or inadequate parenting, parental criminality, and parental substance abuse;individual personality and behavioural factors, such as “cognitive deficits” including a lack of problem-solving skills, self-control, critical reasoning, judgement and failure to consider the consequences of behaviour, hyperactivity, as well as the early onset of aggressive behaviour;peer association, such as relationships with friends who follow a delinquent or criminal lifestyle;school-related factors, such as poor educational achievement and truancy, as well as deficient school environments, and exclusionary policies;Crime prevention through social development seeks to foster “protective factors” such as positive family support that may mitigate situations of risk or disadvantage which contribute to crime and victimization. These protective factors also tend to reduce the risk of harm.CPSD makes connections beyond the traditional criminal justice sphere by recognizing the important role that policies, programs, and services such as social housing, education, health, income security, and social services play in preventing crime. Consequently, CPSD involves a wide range of players from various sectors working together to prevent crime problems.Because CPSD focuses on the social development end of the crime prevention equation, it can take time for the crime prevention benefits to accrue. For example, children and youth are the focus of many CPSD strategies. Some of the best known CPSD programs involve early intervention with children at risk and their parents. Programs such as the Perry Pre-School Project in Michigan and a new generation of “Headstart” programs in Canada (such as Moncton Headstart and Aboriginal Headstart) create supportive environments for children who are at potential risk of later life criminality. These programs demonstrate the ways in which supportive strategies can significantly improve child development, educational achievement and social adjustment, and reduce the likelihood of later involvement in crime.Develop community-based responses and support direct action by communities, especially those most affected.Focus on new and enhanced partnerships with stakeholders, such as local government, law enforcement agencies, the private and academic sectors, to broaden impact and learningCommit to synthesize relevant knowledge and experiences from Canadian communities, and information exchanges between these communities.The renewed NCPC will collaborate with partners at various levels to help mobilize and educate Canadians through:Developing and supporting research and evaluation, policy, and knowledge development on NCPC’s priority groups, including: children and youth, Aboriginal Peoples, and women; andFunding community-based projects through NCPC’s three funding programs, specifically, the Crime Prevention Action Fund (CPAF), the Research and Knowledge Development Fund (RKDF), and the Police, Corrections and Communities Fund (PCCF).
50 NCPC Knowledge Functions - Backdrop BackgroundIncreasing demand for evidence based practiceIncreasing requirement for accountabilityIncreasing need for clear federal role8 years of experience and funded projectsBelief that every project funded has something to add to the body of evidence on crime preventionLittle attention in past to results and lessons learnedOrganization downsize and reorganizationChallengesKnowledge identified as one of three key pillarsOutcomes:improved knowledge of effective crime prevention approachesimproved integration of evidence-based crime prevention into policies and practicesNCPC as knowledge broker and champion of evidence-based solutions for community safety problems
52 TRANSPORT CANADA CIVIL AVIATION KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER RDIMS v1
53 ObjectivesOverview:Transport Canada’s Knowledge Transfer (KT) Project (1999 – 2002)Civil Aviation’s Knowledge Transfer (KT) Project (2008 – )
54 Transport Canada’s KT Project – Major Findings “An important conclusion of the KT project was that TC’s knowledge transfer efforts should not rely exclusively on informatics.”(How to Prevent Knowledge Collapse – Transport Canada’s approach to its critical subject matter experts: knowledge transfer and succession planning challenges, 2004)
55 Civil Aviation’s KT Project - How it Started Study “An Exploration of Knowledge Transfer in Transport Canada Civil Aviation” presented to National Civil Aviation Management Executive (NCAMX) (May, 2007)Terms of Reference approved by NCAMX (Oct, 2007)1st Working Group Face-to-Face Workshop (Oct, 2008)2nd Working Group Face-to-Face Workshop (scheduled for mid-Jan, 2009)
56 Civil Aviation’s KT Project – Strategic Plan Mission: To develop a knowledge transfer program within TCCA to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of our current and future programVision: Knowledge transfer is integrated in our way of doing businessGoals:Define knowledge transfer pressuresObtain on-going management commitmentEngage employees
57 Civil Aviation’s KT Project - Project Deliverables The Working Group will develop:a methodology for the identification of TCCA critical SMEs and their successors (i.e. a succession planning system).a methodology for the transfer of critical knowledge from SMEs to their successors (i.e. KT tools).a tracking mechanism.a performance measurement tool.a communication plan, including education on the benefits for knowledge transferan implementation plan
58 The Common PPT Framework PeopleContentProcessTechnology
60 AgendaHow does Knowledge Management apply to the Canadian public sector?How has Knowledge Management been applied across the Canadian public sector?Lessons Learned in applying KMWhere are we headed?
63 KM Value Chain Who is involved in the KM Value Chain? Leaders Managers Staff/employeesSupport groupsClients/customersSuppliersStakeholders
64 KM Approaches – the Good, the Bad, … Strategic and/or tactical KMcommunities of practice, learning networks, functional communities, collaborative arrangementsorganizational learning & knowledge sharing (Lessons learned, debriefs, AARs, coaching, organizational learning events)organizational analysis (knowledge mapping/auditing, Social Network Analysis)knowledge creation/innovation – knowledge capture, knowledge transferteam-based managementprocess improvementHR/workplace and workforce initiatives (succession planning, Workplace Well-being)IT (intranets, group/collaborative software, portals, yellow pages, expert locators, virtual teams, conferencing, search tools)Training & Dev (individual, team)dM/IM/RM/DM (data, information, records and document management)
65 Smart-Practice Tools (Peter Stoyko) After Action ReviewsExit InterviewsLearning HistoriesLessons Learned InventoriesCommunities of PracticeGuided Learning (Action Learning, etc)Learning Events (Organizational Learning, etc)Job OverlapPhased RetirementNetwork Based Solutions (Expert Locator systems) Externalization of FunctionsDocument Repositories and PortalsAutomation Self-ServiceKnowledge Centres
66 Some Other Practices/Tools VisualizationStorytellingSocial Network AnalysisSuccession Planning/mentoring/coachingK-risk assessment, knowledge auditsKM Maturity Assessment and benchmarkingConcept MappingMindmappingBusiness Process A/R/MSimulation techniquesKnowledge RetentionLearning LabsExpert location/’Ask the Expert”Data mining/ analysis……
67 Communities of Practice What are they? “a group of people who share a concern, a set of problems or a passion about a topic and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis”Wenger, McDermott and SnyderA group of people that shares knowledge, learns together and develops common / improved practices.They have committed themselves to the exploration and advancement of the ‘practice’ of the community.They recognize the value in what each other knows and they need to stay current on the topic.The sense of ‘community’ enables a learning environment to exist where practitioners of varying knowledge, skill, or experience levels can openly share and build on each others’ knowledge and ideas in a climate of trust and respect.
68 Communities of Practice How are they different from Teams? Source: KM Review
72 “Web 2.0 describes the changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aim to enhance creativity, communications, secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the web. Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of web culture communities and hosted services, such as social-networking sites, video sharing sites, wikis, blogs, and folksonomies.” (Wikipedia)
73 Clusty bookmarks wiki’s search engines social networks Surveys & poles instant messagingClustyslides sharingmail groupsvideo sharingphoto sharingcalendarsaudio sharingNetvibesblogsaggregatorspresences
79 Key Lessons Learned Focus KM on strategic and tactical business needs Senior leadership needs to own it, champion it and lead by exampleDevelop strong relationships with allies (Business managers, OD, HR, IM, IT,…)Develop an integrated approach/strategy tied directly to the business strategyBuild on what is working wellEngage all levels in the change – ideas and empowermentBe willing to take some risks – learn from failuresFix/reduce known problems – start at the point of painMake better use of tools, both existing tools and new onesRemember the KM principlesKeep building on successDemonstrate servant leadershipPlan and manage for change
80 “That’s the way we do things around here” What are the CSFs?Business driversLeadership – clear and motivating vision, ownership, and exercised at all levelsEmployee EngagementOrganizational and Behavioural change – influencing corporate cultureSustainable improvement – transformative commitment for the long-term, ‘stable’ organization“That’s the way we do things around here”
81 “Don’ts” for Knowledge Management Don’t treat KM as a project, a one-off, an IT “solution”, or a pilotit’s part of the management discipline!Don’t focus on KM; focus on the business needs and use KM as a means to help you manage your way there (only if needed)Don’t underestimate the scope, timeframes and effort, depending upon your needsthis is organizational change towards maturity as a knowledge-intensive organization
82 Knowledge Retention/Transfer Knowledge Transfer => Pre-retirement knowledge capture (e.g. Office of the Commission of Official Languages, TBS, CPSA)APQC: Benchmarking Best-Practice Research StudyThe best way to retain valuable knowledge in the face of attrition or downsizing is to build and sustain systemic knowledge management approaches.To identify what knowledge was critical to capture, 89 percent of the partners had discussions with senior management and interviews with employees or subject matter experts.
83 Knowledge Retention/Transfer - APQC The most effective way to capture, retain, and transfer valuable knowledge is to embed that process into the work flow.The study partners rely on communities of practice to embed and transfer organizational knowledge. Partners remarked that tacit knowledge-the most valuable and difficult knowledge to distil in any organization-is best retained through communities of practice and networks.Cultural changes require understanding the impact of formal evaluation and performance, creating rewards and awards for teamwork, understanding the need for knowledge expositions and fairs (the creation of an innovation marketplace), and sharing stories that emphasize the desired knowledge-sharing behavior.Most organizations use common basic tools, such as collaborative applications, data repositories, , and videoconferencing for knowledge retention.Best-practice organizations typically have three critical elements in their knowledge management and retention support structures: senior management support, a central knowledge management support group, and the involvement of different business units or functions in the initiative.
84 Knowledge Retention/Transfer - APQC The reported costs for knowledge retention initiatives are less than knowledge management initiatives in APQC's prior studies, apparently due to the fact that best-practice organizations build on knowledge management tools and skills already in place and often build retention activities into the existing work flow.The knowledge management groups at study partners often work closely with human resources teams to design and implement knowledge retention strategies, including hiring employees who will work effectively in a knowledge-sharing environment..Partners and sponsors reported that the most effective methods to measure the success of knowledge transfer are conducting user surveys, tracking the number of knowledge objects accessed and used, tracking knowledge transfer activities, and capturing KM success meaningful stories.Best-practice organizations demonstrate a link between knowledge management and organizational learning.
85 Knowledge Retention/Transfer Keys What is the problem?What needs to be done?What can I do?What can we do?
86 Succession Planning Keys to Consider (Institute for Employment Studies, UK)
87 Ten Practical Tips for Succession Planning (IES) Engage with senior managers at the startFocus on easily defined groupsStart with a fairly small populationDesign in how information flowsDon’t go overboard on assessing potentialEnsure collective management agreementCommunicateTailor career developmentHR leaders should take a serious roleHang in there.
88 AgendaHow does Knowledge Management apply to the Canadian public sector?How has Knowledge Management been applied across the Canadian public sector?Lessons Learned in applying KMWhere are we headed?
89 KM Evolution From To Knowledge Capture Knowledge Mobilization Documents and repositories CommunitiesFormal strategies Emergent strategiesSeparate function/organization The way we do things…
91 Where are we headed? The Public Service Renewal Agenda Principles Supporting RenewalRenewal is not a top-down exercise: respectand involve employees at all levelsPrioritize and focus: set goals and priorities thatare relevant, ambitious and realisticMeasurement matters: set benchmarks for performance and measure progressExcellence should be our hallmark: need to manage for it, to itBe flexible: learn through process of change, and be prepared to adjust course as we learnFourteenth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada, April 2007,
92 Where are we headed? The Public Service Renewal Agenda Short and Medium Term PrioritiesPlanning – integrated HR and business planningRecruitment, incl. brandingEmployee Development – learning, ADM talent managementEnabling InfrastructureLonger-term ObjectivesThe human resources systemInnovation and risk managementLeadershipFourteenth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada, April 2007,
93 Where are we headed? The Public Service Renewal Agenda “To be successful, our approach to renewal has to be targeted, pragmatic, and results-oriented. We need to:rethink our recruitment model; the Public Service of Canada cannot be a passive recruiter of talent;rethink our development model; to manage for excellence and focus on leadership; rethink the jobs-for-life and one-size-fits-all model; to encourage more interchanges with the private sector; more mid-career and end-of-first-career recruitment; and, rethink the public service brand; focus on excellence, unique careers and the opportunity to make a difference for your country.”The Clerk of the Privy Council and Secretary to the CabinetMcMaster-Ottawa Alumni Fall Speaker Series, October 26, 2006
94 Canada School of Public Service Leadership Framework Empowered IndividualsDeveloped OrganizationsStrong NetworksConnected &Aligned OrganizationsExternalIndividualsInternalOrganizationsStrengthened Individual CapacityPublic Service Management ExcellenceEffective PartnershipsEnhanced Collaboration
95 Government of Canada Key Leadership Competencies Canada Public Service Agency,
98 What Does Excellence look like? EFQM Excellence ModelIbero-American Excellence Model (IEM)
99 Other Organizational Excellence Models Center for Organizational ExcellenceAustralian Business Excellence Framework (SAI)Canadian Framework for Business Excellence (NQI)
100 Other Organizational Excellence Models Baldrige Criteria for Performance ExcellenceJapan Quality modelSingapore Quality Award Framework
101 Other Organizational Excellence Models Seimens AG KM Maturity ModelEuropean KM Framework
102 Key Characteristics of Excellence Models The models are integrative and holistic in natureThe focus is on the organization as a whole (a ‘systems’ view)All components have a dynamic interplay in the strategic change approach to achieve resultsLeadership is a key componentThe Leadership function is embedded and fostered at all levelsLeadership development is as closely linked to operations as it is to strategyLeadership typically entails modern facilitative approaches vs control-oriented doctrinal approachesKnowledge and Learning are key enablersknowledge and the contribution of people as knowledge-workers is essential for knowledge-based resultsKnowledge Management is an enabling strategy for organizational excellenceOrganizational learning vs individual learning; formal and informal learning; blended learning; experiential learning; community learning; etc
103 “In the future, we won’t call it ‘Knowledge Management’,…” Gartner Group
104 …we’ll call it Management” Gartner Group “In the future, we won’t call it Knowledge Management,……we’ll call it Management”Gartner Group
105 Paul McDowall Knowledge Management Advisor Canada School of Public Service373 Sussex Drive,Ottawa, Ontario,K1N6Z2, CanadaInterdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum: