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1 Presenter: Beresford Riley, Government of Improving individual performance: Effective Performance Management Systems for Small StatesRegional Caribbean Conference on Improving Public Service Performance in the OECS in times of crisisRex Saint Lucian HotelNovember 2 – 3, 2009Presenter: Beresford Riley, Government ofTrinidad and TobagoGood afternoon ladies and gentlemen.On behalf of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago, I am honoured to share with you today on the topic: Improving Individual Performance: Effective Performance Management Systems for Small States.It is indeed a privilege to be part of this wonderful process of sharing and learning.
2 Agenda Managing Individual Performance : some perspectives The experience of the Public Service of Trinidad and TobagoLessons for small statesIn keeping with the terms of reference established for this panel, I wish to share some of the experiences of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago in the area of Managing Individual Performance. I wish also to touch on the perspectives of a few commentators on the topic of performance management. Most importantly, it is my intention to extract lessons from our experiences which may be of value to policy makers in the OECS as you seek to enhance your own systems in this area. Let us look first at the perspectives of some commentators.
4 PerformancePerformance refers to “outcomes, results or accomplishments”Rothwell, 2005Rothwell (2005) describes performance as, “outcomes, results or accomplishments.” This is a simple yet profound concept. When all has been said, the question that remains to be asked is, “What have we accomplished?” I want to suggest that a key facet of our role as managers and supervisors in the Public Service is to ensure that at the end of the day, some positive results have been accomplished, results that contribute to improving the lives of the average citizen.
5 Components of Performance Four components of performanceA performerBehaviourSituationResultsMorhman et al ,1989Morhman et al (1989) identify four separate components of performance. They state that, “A performance consists of a performer engaging in behaviour in a situation to achieve results.” The authors indicate that most types of appraisal systems focus on the performer, the behaviour or results. They go on to classify the types of performance appraisal systems into four categories: Performer- oriented approaches; behaviour-oriented approaches; results-oriented approaches and comparison-oriented approaches.
6 Performance management Performance management is,“a continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance with the strategic goals of the organization.” Aguinis, 2005Aguinis (2005) defines performance management as, “a continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance with the strategic goals of the organization.”
7 Performance management “A system that involves employee evaluations once a year without an ongoing effort to provide feedback and coaching so that performance can be improved is not a true performance management system.”Aguinis, 2005He contends that, “a system that involves employee evaluations once a year without an ongoing effort to provide feedback and coaching so that performance can be improved is not a true performance management system.” He describes this rather, as only a performance appraisal system.
8 Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal is “the systematic description of an employee’s strengths and weaknesses.”Aguinis, 2005For Aguinis, performance appraisal is “the systematic description of an employee’s strengths and weaknesses.”
9 The experiences of the public service of trinidad and tobago
10 The T&T ExperienceEstablishment of the Performance Management and Appraisal system (PMAS)Introduction of the Ministerial Performance Management Framework (MPMF)Today’s presentation focuses on two major phases of Trinidad and Tobago’s journey, namely establishment of the Performance Management and Appraisal System (PMAS) and introduction of the Ministerial Performance Management Framework (MPMF).
11 Performance Management and Appraisal System (PMAS) Replaced trait-based staff reporting systemReduced reliance upon supervisor perception about whether employee possessed qualities such as loyaltyPMAS is a results-based appraisal system which has replaced the trait based-system of staff reporting. In the latter system, employees were appraised on the perceptions of their supervisors as to whether they possessed certain traits or qualities, such as: dependability and loyalty. Under PMAS, employees are appraised on the basis of meeting certain goals.
12 Characteristics of PMAS Results -basedBuilt around a continuous processCycle involves Performance Planning; Performance Support; Performance ReviewLinkage to strategic planning processDevelopmental focusDocumentation critical
13 PMAS Process PLAN (Strategic, Operational Plans PERFORMANCE(Strategic, Operational PlansJob Clarification) SUPPORTING(Monitoring, Coaching, Feedback)FINAL REVIEW OF(Results vs. Expectations)
14 PMAS Documents PLAN (Position Description) MONITOR & SUPPORT PERFORMANCE(Position Description)MONITOR & SUPPORT(Appraisal DiscussionRecord)FINAL REVIEW OF(Performance Appraisal Report)
15 PMAS ChallengesPMAS introduced before Organizational Performance Management System; performance culture is now being developedIn the context of a fledgling HR system, other activities often given priority over PMASRequirement to train 60,000 officers in new skills and behaviours
16 Ministerial Performance Management Framework (MPMF) A home grown system for managing Ministry and Department performanceDeveloped by Permanent Secretaries and Heads of Departments in 2004, 2005
17 MPMF Policy Objectives The objectives of the policy were to ensure the:Success and institutionalisation of a results-based performance management cultureAchievement of the goals of Vision 2020 by linking individual and team performance to ministerial business plans
18 MPMF Policy Objectives Cont’d.- Provision of a balanced approach for measuring performance results and competenciesDevelopment of core competencies that reflect the values and skills that are necessary for individual and government success; and
19 MPMF Policy Objectives Cont’d. Promotion of job satisfaction in a motivating environment, and the recognition and reward of good performance.
20 MPMF – Project GoalTo increase the performance and effectiveness of Ministries and Departments in the enhancement and delivery of quality public services as laid out in national and organisational strategic plans
21 MPMF - Components The five key components of the MPMF are: Ministerial PerformanceManagement Team PerformanceService to CitizensEmployee EngagementAchievement of Vision 2020 Goals
29 Lessons LearntNeed for alignment of individual employee appraisal system with system for managing organization performanceAssess performance on a number of different dimensionsNeed to develop systems to suit one’s particular context and needs
30 Lessons Learnt Cont’d.Need to utilise competency-based management approachNeed for a systems perspective. One aspect of the system impacts another. E.g. Development of core competencies has implications for recruitment and selection, training
31 Lessons Learnt Cont’d.Need to adopt a change management approach, inclusive ofResearch on best practicesInvolvement of key stakeholdersAssigning dedicated leadership to changeReview of existing processes, utilising new technology where appropriate
32 Lessons learnt Cont’d.Need to adopt a change management approach, inclusive of:Developing an appropriate communications strategyBuilding the required knowledge, skills and attitudesDeveloping the required tools
33 Lessons Learnt Cont’d.- Evolving Strategies in Meeting Challenges of PMAS Training of Staff directlyTraining of HR PractitionersCoaching of HR PractitionersDevelopment of Training Tools:PMAS ToolkitTraining Video, “Shaping Performance: Appraising Mr Paul”