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Rise of Fascism and Nationalism Text pages 758 – 764

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1 Rise of Fascism and Nationalism Text pages 758 – 764
SSWH17 The student will be able to identify the major political and economic factors that shaped world societies between World War I and World War II. c. Describe the rise of fascism in Europe and Asia by comparing the policies of Benito Mussolini in Italy, Adolf Hitler in Germany, and Hirohito in Japan. d. Analyze the rise of nationalism as seen in the ideas of Sun Yat Sen, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, and Mohandas Ghandi.

2 Rise of Dictatorial Regimes
By 1939, only two major European states– France & Great Britain– remained democratic. Italy, Soviet Union, Germany and others adopted dictatorial regimes. Totalitarian state- government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens.

3 Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolini established the first European fascist movement in Italy. Fascism glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government. In a fascist state, people are controlled by the government & any opposition is suppressed. Demanded land for Italy & won thousands of converts to fascism with his patriotic and nationalistic appeals.

4 Fascism under Mussolini
Victor Emmanuel II, king of Italy, gave in and made Mussolini prime minister in 1922. Given right to make laws by decree Police were given unrestricted authority to arrest & jail anyone for either political or nonpolitical crimes. 1926 outlawed all other political parties and established a secret police Mussolini ruled Italy by end of year as Il Duce- “the Leader”


6 Japan under Hirohito Reigned over Japan from 1926 – 1989
Longest reign of all Japanese emperors Increased military power within the government through legal & extralegal means Military clique held almost all political power in Japan Pursued policies that eventually led to Japanese involvement in the second Sino-Japanese war and WWII Billions of Asians see Hirohito as Asia’s Hitler of WWII; others argue he was merely a figurehead


8 Rise of nationalism p

9 Mohandas Ghandi in India
Viewed as India’s “Great Soul” or Mahatma Protested British laws using civil disobedience Leader in Indian independence movement

10 Nationalism in China pages 692, 793-794
Revolutionary Marxism had its greatest impact in China Sun Yat Sen formed the Nationalist Party 3 Principles Military takeover Transitional phase Party prepares the people Constitutional democracy Promoted nationalism, democracy, and the right for people to pursue their own livelihoods Formed alliance with communists in 1923.


12 Nationalism in Turkey pages 783-784
Led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk or “Father Turk” Tried to transform Turkey into a modern state Did not tolerate opposition, harshly oppressed his critics Popular education introduced Factories established, forced to adopt last names Attempted to break power of Islamic religion


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