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Outcome: Causes of World War II

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1 Outcome: Causes of World War II

2 Causes of World War II Underlying Causes of World War II
Totalitarian Dictators gained power around the world Fascist leaders arose in Europe after WWI in: Italy: Benito Mussolini (followers wore black shirts) Spain: Franco’s fascists won the Spanish Civil War Soviet Union: Joseph Stalin took control of the communist nation Japan: Hideki Tojo: Military Leader & Prime Minister Emperor Hirohito: Political & Spiritual figurehead Germany: Adolf Hitler (Nazism = German Fascism)

3 Fascism a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition

4 Benito Mussolini of Italy

5 Francisco Franco of Spain

6 Joseph Stalin in The Soviet Union

7 Hideki Tojo & Emperor Hirohito

8 Adolf Hitler in Germany

9 Causes of World War II Each dictator took advantage of economic problems by: Promising simple solutions to their nation’s problems Rebuilding national pride (often using propaganda) Providing scapegoats (targets for anger & blame) Absorbing power, taking away individual rights, and crushing opposition (1 party; 1 ruler)

10 Adolf Hitler in Germany

11 Causes of World War II Nationalism + Imperialism
In Germany, Adolf Hitler preached: Vengeance against (4 hates) Democracies (a weak & undisciplined form of gov’t) Communism (a threat to Nazi growth) November Criminals who signed the WWI Armistice Jews (the source of all evil & problems in Germany) Anti-Semitism & racial supremacy (The Master Race) A desire to unit all people of German ancestry (Blood & language) “Lebensraum” (a desire for more living space) needed to build his empire he called The Third Reich

12 Benito Mussolini of Italy

13 Causes of World War II In Italy, Mussolini (Il Duce = “The Leader”)
Felt betrayed by the Allies at the Treaty of Versailles Conference due to a promise of land for joining the Allies that was not kept Wished to rebuild the ancient Holy Roman Empire and wanted to control lands around the Mediterranean Sea; “Mare Nostrum = Our Sea

14 Hideki Tojo & Emperor Hirohito

15 Causes of World War II Wanted China’s land for this purpose
Japan wanted to be self sufficient and #1 in Asia but needed oil and raw materials Wanted China’s land for this purpose Goal: Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere: name for power in Asia

16 Causes of World War II Militarism Germany:
Defied the Treaty of Versailles & rebuilt the army Created the “Nazi War Machine” Japan Built up the strongest military regime in Asia Soldier’s motto: “Death before Dishonor” Italy Formed the Rome-Berlin Axis (alliance) with Germany in 1936

17 Causes of World War II Poor Decisions were made by the powerful democracies France & Great Britain adopted a policy of appeasement The League of Nations would prove ineffective; lacked a military U.S.: Isolationism & Depression kept our focus on U.S. concerns; once aggression began we claimed to be neutral

18 Causes of World War II Equation:
Nationalism + Imperialism + Militarism = Aggression Extreme Aggression = War!

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