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EXAM PREP World History. EARLY CIVILIZATIONS Unit 1.

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Presentation on theme: "EXAM PREP World History. EARLY CIVILIZATIONS Unit 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 EXAM PREP World History

2 EARLY CIVILIZATIONS Unit 1

3 Early Civilization Where did the world’s first cities appear? Along fertile river valleys (Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China) What are the 8 features of civilization? – Cities, government, religion, job specialization, social classes, writing, arts, & architecture

4 Early Civilization How & why did the ancient Egyptians practice mummification? – Mummification was a complex scientific process for preserving dead bodies. Egyptians believed that your body went with you in the afterlife What is the Code of Hammurabi? – The first set of written standardized laws; very strict, “eye for an eye”

5 Early Civilization Compare & Contrast Hinduism & Buddhism – Both religions believe in reincarnation, and believe that if you live a perfect life, then you will escape the cycle of reincarnation. Hindus have a more rigid social structure & are polytheistic. Buddhists do not worship any central gods What was the purpose of the caste system in India? – To keep the spiritually “impure/unclean” away from the rest of the people

6 CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS (GREECE & ROME) Unit 2

7 Classic Civilizations Compare & Contrast the Greek city-states of Athens & Sparta – Athens: democratic, emphasized the arts, wealthy traders – Sparta: monarchy, military & war, no arts – Both spoke same language & worshipped same gods Describe monarchy, aristocracy, & oligarchy – Monarchy: single ruler, king/queen – Aristocracy: ruled by landowners – Oligarchy: ruled by rich

8 Classical Civilizations Explain the difference between direct democracy & representative democracy – Direct: every citizen votes directly on every law – Representative: voters elect reps to make laws How did the Classical Greek & Roman cultures influence modern law & government? – Created concept of democracy, structure of senate, & the basis for all modern law

9 Classical Civilizations Explain how Christianity grew so rapidly in the Roman Empire – Christianity was open to anyone & had positive message about eternal life; spread by Paul Explain the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire – Causes: weak military, overspending/debt, high taxes, invasions  led to “Dark Ages”

10 MEDIEVAL TIMES/ MIDDLE AGES Unit 3

11 Middle Ages What was the Magna Carta? – Document which placed limits on the English king by protecting the people from abuse of power Why did the Catholic Church launch the Crusades? – To push the Muslims out of the Holy Land (Jerusalem)

12 Middle Ages How did the Black Death affect Europe? – Killed 1/3 of population, lowered people’s faith in the Church, damaged European economy

13 RENAISSANCE & REFORMATION Unit 4

14 Reformation What was the purpose of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses? – To expose corruptions and promote reforms & changes in the Catholic Church How did the printing press change Europe? – Allowed for the spread of ideas

15 Renaissance What were the central ideas of Machiavelli’s The Prince? – For a king, it is better to be feared than loved; the end justifies the means.

16 SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Unit 5

17 Science What scientific theory was developed by Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo? – Heliocentric (sun-centered) universe What was the main accomplishment of Sir Francis Bacon? – Scientific Method

18 EUROPEAN MONARCHY- ENLIGHTENMENT Unit 6

19 European Monarchy What happened to King Charles I as a result of the English Civil War? – He was overthrown & beheaded How did the English Bill of Rights affect the power of the British monarchy? – Put strict limits on monarchy & set up Parliament

20 European Monarchy How did King Louis XVI contribute to the decline in France? – He overspent money and refused to reform taxes According to John Locke, what are natural rights? – Life, liberty, & property

21 Enlightenment What country structured its government on the basis of Montesquieu’s ideas of separation of powers and checks & balances? – The United States Describe what Adam Smith meant by “laissez- faire” economics – Hands off, no govt interference

22 AMERICAN REVOLUTION & FRENCH REVOLUTION Unit 7

23 French Rev. How were people executed during Robespierre’s Reign of Terror? – Guillotine What was the goal of the French Revolution? – To reform and have more equality and government rights within the social classes (estates); to weaken the control of the monarchy & the wealthy, give more power to middle class

24 French Rev. Who was Napoleon Bonaparte? – A general who took over France at the end of the French Revolution

25 American Rev. How are the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of Rights of Man similar? – Both emphasize the natural rights common to ALL people What document outlines the responsibilities and powers of the American federal government? – The Constitution

26 INDUSTRIALIZATION Unit 8

27 Industrialization Why was child labor in factories a problem? – Factories were dangerous, unsanitary, and they had no education What is an assembly line? – A faster, cheaper way of producing goods by training workers to each specialize in one task

28 Industrialization What is a monopoly? – When one person/company controls an industry without any competition What industrialism problem worried Karl Marx – The gap between rich factory owners and poor workers Inventions of the 19 th century: – Car, electric lighting, airplane, telephone

29 WORLD WAR I Unit 9

30 WWI What are the MAIN causes of WWI? – Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism What was the Zimmerman Telegram? – An attempt made by Germany to get Mexico to attack the US

31 WWI How was Germany punished at the end of WWI? – Blamed for war, lost territories, no military, paid war reparations to winners What was the purpose of Wilson’s 14 points? – To end WWI and prevent future wars

32 WORLD WAR II Unit 10

33 WWII What is fascism? – Extreme, violent, nationalism that celebrates the state ahead of individuals What is totalitarianism? What are some examples of totalitarian leaders during WWII? – a single party dictatorship which uses secret police, state-controlled economy, and censorship to maintain order; examples include Mussolini’s Italy, Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s USSR

34 WWII What is propaganda? – An attempt to influence public opinion through the use of half-truths (& lies) and scare tactics What is appeasement? – Giving an aggressor what he wants in order to avoid war

35 WWII Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor, HI? – The US had cut off trade with Japan, and angering them What is genocide and what are examples of genocide from WWII? – an attempt to wipe out an entire people due to their race, ethnicity, or religion; examples include the Holocaust

36 WWII What was D-Day? – June 6, 1944, the Allied forces invaded France to open a western front against Germany in WWII What happened to the Japanese cities of Hiroshima & Nagasaki? – They were destroyed by the US atomic bomb

37 WWII What is the purpose of the UN? – To maintain peace and promote cooperation between nations

38 COLD WAR Unit 10

39 Cold War What was the Cold War? – A competition for power and influence between the US and the Soviet Union What were the key conflicts of the Cold War? – Korean War, Berlin Blockade & Airlift, Vietnam War, Cuban Missile Crisis

40 Cold War How did the Cold War end? – the Soviet Union collapsed due to economic and political problems

41 TWENTIETH & TWENTY-FIRST CENTURIES Unit II

42 20 th Century What happened in Tiananmen Square (China) in 1989? – Pro-democracy demonstrators were brutally attacked & suppressed by the govt & it limited even more freedoms Where does the AIDS epidemic pose the greatest risk today? – Africa

43 20 th -21 st Centuries What is apartheid and where was it practiced? – Apartheid is when race is used to discriminated (minority over majority); South Africa, whites controlled African majority Why are Iran & North Korea major concerns for us today? – They are both developing nuclear weapons

44 20 th- 21 st centuries What is the focus of the Arab-Isreali conflict today? – Land ownership claims and civil rights for Palestinians living in Isreal What countries did the US invade following the 9/11 attacks? – Afghanistan and Iraq


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