S.W.B.A.T. Evaluate how new ideas and trade affected world travel and exploration by completing a summary exercise.
Initial Activity How does this picture show a growing economy?
Word of the Day Renaissance: A Rebirth, or growth in society.
Word of the Day Quiz 1. Migration 2. Develop 3. Nomad 4. Succession 5. Democracy
Middle Ages As the Roman Empire fell, groups from the north and east moved into former Roman lands. By the early 500s Europe was divided into many small kingdoms. This marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, a period that lasted about a thousand years.
Feudalism Nobles became more powerful than the kings, by defending their land in battle. Although loyal to the kings, these nobles ruled their lands as independent territories. Powerful nobles, called lords, divided their land to lesser nobles, known as vassals, in exchange for military service and loyalty.
Feudalism Vassals divided their land among lesser nobles, called knights. Knights warriors that fought on horseback This political and social system is known as feudalism.
Feudalism Peasants were at the bottom of feudal society. Owned no land, but had to grow food to live. Farmed the Nobles’ manors, or large estates. Were given protection by nobles for farming their land. Supplied noble with food or other goods
Feudalism Feudalism promoted the separation of people. Catholic Church Unified people of Europe. Nearly everyone was Christian. Life revolved around the church.
The Crusades In the late 1000s European Christians began a long series of holy wars called the Crusades against the Muslim Turks. The Turks had conquered Palestine, which Christians considered the Holy Land because they believed Jesus lived there. Lasted for 300 years and failed to gain the Holy Land.
The Crusades Even though it failed to gain the Holy land, the Crusades created big changes in Europe. Trade between Europe and Asia began to grow
Travel, Trade, and Towns Towns which were small were now getting larger due to new technology which grew more food. Travel became safer and kingdoms eventually became nation-states, or organized political units with a central government. Trade routes spread across Europe. Merchants brought goods from Asia and Africa to sell in European markets.
The Black Plague Ships from Asia and Africa also brought back rats infected with the Black Plague. The disease, known as the Black Death, spread across Europe, killing an estimated 25 million people. European economy changed by the shortage of workers. Led to the decline of the Feudal System.
“The Black Death” Group Activity Look on pages 28-29. As a group, answer the two “interpreting maps” questions on the bottom of page 29. Use the diagram on pages 28-29 to help you answer the questions.
The Renaissance The Renaissance period brought new ways of thinking to Europe, weakening the old feudal system even more. The word Renaissance means “rebirth” and refers to the period that followed the Middle Ages in Europe. This movement began in Italy and eventually spread to other parts of Europe. During the Renaissance, European rulers began to increase their power over the nobles in their countries. Fewer invasions from outside forces helped bring a period of order and stability in Europe.
Search for Knowledge Love of art and education was a key feature or the Renaissance. Scholars brought ancient classical writings with them to Italy. Ex: writings from Greek thinkers like Plato The Renaissance focused more on the importance of people rather than religion. This was called humanism.
Search for Knowledge Renaissance scholars went on to make scientific advancements. Created symbols for the square root and positive and negative numbers. Astronomers discovered that the Earth moves around the sun. Made calculations for more accurate maps.
Search for Knowledge Development of the printing press Allowed an entire page to be printed at once For the first time in history, people could read the same books at the same time and share ideas.
Economic Changes Affect Trade The growth of trade led to a commercial revolution and a rise in mercantilism. Mercantilism: an economic system that brings together the power and wealth of a nation. Trading centers developed. Growth of Banks
Summary Take out a sheet of loose leaf and answer the following question in paragraph format: How did the Renaissance lead to trade and a commercial revolution?