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Riverside County Office of Education Reading for Meaning Go “A. P. E.” for Fluency John E. Allen, Presenter Jurupa Unified School District.

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Presentation on theme: "Riverside County Office of Education Reading for Meaning Go “A. P. E.” for Fluency John E. Allen, Presenter Jurupa Unified School District."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Riverside County Office of Education Reading for Meaning Go “A. P. E.” for Fluency John E. Allen, Presenter Jurupa Unified School District

3 Riverside County Office of Education 2 Objectives Content Objective: We will learn the three elements of fluency instruction Language Objective: I will describe the three elements of fluency instruction to a partner

4 Riverside County Office of Education 3 Language Function: Description One of the three elements of fluency is _____ The three elements of fluency are ______, _____, and _______. The three elements of fluency are ___________. They are important because _________. Fluency is comprised of ___________. These elements are important because ___________. We must always remember ___________.

5 Riverside County Office of Education 4 What Am I Learning? - KWLA TopicWhat I KnowWhat I Want to Know What I LearnedHow I will Apply What I Learned Fluency

6 Riverside County Office of Education Why Teach Fluency? “40 % of a representative sample of the nation’s fourth graders were low in fluency. ” (NAEP, 2002, 2005) “Fluency is a neglected skill in many American classrooms, affecting many students’ reading comprehension.” “Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.” Put Reading First 2001, pp

7 Riverside County Office of Education What Skills Do Students Need To Be Fluent? Decoding Skills Comprehension Skills

8 Riverside County Office of Education Decoding Component  Deep orthographic knowledge: – An understanding of the patterns of language – Practice with words and phrases

9 Riverside County Office of Education Comprehension Component Comprehension Component: – Ability to combine textual information with personal knowledge and experience – An understanding of how punctuation works within text

10 Riverside County Office of Education 9 Fluency is the bridge between the sound- spelling system and comprehension.

11 Riverside County Office of Education 10 Automaticity and Fluency Automaticity: Fast, effortless word recognition without expression. Fluency: The ability to read accurately, at a proper pace, with appropriate intonation and expression. (Put Reading First 2001, p. 22)

12 11 Framework for Reading Vocabulary Phonemic Awareness Phonics Automaticity Sight Words Concepts of Print DECODING COMPREHENSION Word Recognition Strategies Fluency (A.P.E.) Academic Language Comprehension Strategies MOTIVATION Background Knowledge Syntax & Text Structure Comprehension Monitoring (Re)organizing Text John Shefelbine, CSU Sacramento/Developmental Studies Center/CA Reading Framework 1997, p. 20

13 Riverside County Office of Education 12 Fluency is derived from the Latin word fluens, which means “to flow”.

14 Riverside County Office of Education 13 Fluency Defined Fluency is the ability to accurately and effortlessly decode written words while recognizing meaning in those words through appropriate phrasing and oral expression. (Fluency: An Oft-Neglected Goal of the Reading Program; Rasinski, 2006 ) In reading aloud, fluent readers read accurately, effortlessly, and with expression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking.

15 Riverside County Office of Education 14 Fluent Readers:  Recognize words automatically  Read aloud effortlessly and with expression  Do not have to concentrate on decoding  Can focus on comprehension (Put Reading First 2001, p. 22)

16 Riverside County Office of Education 15 When the reader focuses all of his/her attention on word recognition, it drains cognitive resources, thereby leaving little room for comprehension. Dysfluency

17 Riverside County Office of Education 16 3 DIMENSIONS OF FLUENCY ACCURACYEXPRESSIONPACING “ Readers must be able to sound out the words in a text with minimal errors. this refers to phonics and other strategies for decoding words.” Rasinski (2004) Creating Fluent Readers “ Readers need to expend as little mental effort as possible in the decoding aspect of reading so that they can use their finite cognitive resources for meaning making. ” LaBerge & Samuels “ The reader must parse the text into syntactically and semantically appropriate units”. Rasinski (2004)

18 Riverside County Office of Education 17 Go “APE” The Three Dimensions of Fluency Accuracy Pacing Expression

19 Riverside County Office of Education 18 Accuracy Explicit phonics instruction Developing automaticity with decoding and recognition of words Developed through blending routines Practice with decodable text Connection to Sound Spelling Cards

20 Riverside County Office of Education 19 Pacing Appropriate pacing is explicitly taught and modeled Students are given time to read text multiple times to practice appropriate pacing… …not speed reading! Daily practice

21 Riverside County Office of Education 20 Expression Prosody-the music of language Explicit instruction and modeling on how to read text with appropriate expression Daily practice Focus on different aspects of expression – Pausing, Phrasing – Inflection – Cadence

22 Riverside County Office of Education 21 Objectives Content Objective: We will learn the three elements of fluency instruction Language Objective: I will describe the three elements of fluency instruction to a partner

23 Riverside County Office of Education 22 Language Function: Description One of the three elements of fluency is _____ The three elements of fluency are ______, _____, and _______. The three elements of fluency are ___________. They are important because _________. Fluency is comprised of ___________. These elements are important because ___________. We must always remember ___________.

24 Riverside County Office of Education 23 Practice is the Key to Building Automaticity! But... Practice implies that instruction has happened. As with all other skills, fluency must first be directly taught and demonstrated before students are expected to practice.

25 Fluency where to find it… Phonics Library K-2 Reader’s Library 3-6 I Love Reading Books: 1-2 Decodable Books: K-2 On My Way Practice Readers: K-2 Theme Paperbacks: 1-6 Practice Readers 24

26 Riverside County Office of Education 25 How do I directly teach fluency? Think-alouds: -Analyze text for clues to “prosody” (melodic, rhythmic speech) Expressive Modeling: -Discussion of choices when reading Phrase Cued Reading: -Adding “signals” to text

27 Riverside County Office of Education 26 Think-Aloud for Fluency I notice that there are commas in this text. I will need to put short pauses there. I also notice that there is a dash. That means that I need to add in a longer pause to get me ready for the exciting ending where the exclamation point is.

28 Riverside County Office of Education 27 Expressive Modeling Teacher models fluent reading daily. Teacher reads with expression and prosody. Teacher discusses prosodic features of text. Teacher guides students in reading with expression and prosody. Teacher guides children in discussion of why they read something as they did.

29 Riverside County Office of Education 28 Phrase-Cued Reading Instructional Sequence: – Teacher marks phrases and models reading Chorally read—exaggerate prosody Reread in pairs—teacher monitors Reread as homework to parents, siblings, etc. – Reread same passage with no marks the next day Choral and partner practicing – Students mark new passages by the phrase Partner reading practice Individual performance

30 Riverside County Office of Education 29 Phrase-Cued Reading Divide text according to natural pauses within & between sentences. Help students recognize the syntactic chunks that are formed by: – prepositional phrases – verbal phrases – other meaningful chunks (ideas that cluster together). Passages should be: – brief ( words)

31 Riverside County Office of Education 30 The Fourth of July Parade Every Fourth of July, / there is a parade in our town. // It is so much fun! // There are marching bands and floats. // There are horses, / ponies, / and pets. // There are clowns and jugglers. // There are wagons and fire engines. // And most of all, / there are people, / people, / people! //

32 Riverside County Office of Education 31 How do I directly teach fluency? We will also explore: – Repeated Reading – Echo Reading – Cloze Reading – Choral Reading

33 Riverside County Office of Education 32 Repeated Reading Children read in pairs. One child reads the text three times. The other child reviews errors and rates the reader on fluency on the third reading. The children reverse roles. (Koskinen & Blum 1986, 70-75)

34 Riverside County Office of Education 33 Why Repeated Reading? Fluency rate increases with each reading. Word recognition errors drop. Improves rate on the next passage.

35 Riverside County Office of Education 34 Why Repeated Readings? Fewer fixations (stalls) per line, taking in larger chunks of text (eye span) with each fixation Shorter duration of fixations, mental processing becomes faster Fewer regressions, moving through passage freely Samuels, Schermer,& Reinking

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37 Riverside County Office of Education Modeling Fluency: The Continuum of Teacher Support Echo Reading – High level of support Cloze Reading – Medium level of support Choral Reading – Low level of support 36

38 Riverside County Office of Education 37 Let’s Practice Echo-Cloze-Choral There are many plants on our earth. Plants can be big. Plants can be small. We can’t even see some plants. They are too small. Plants need many things to grow. They need sunlight. Some plants need a lot of sunlight. Others need very little sunlight. Plants also need water to grow. Just like sunlight, some plants need a lot of water. Other plants need very little water. A cactus can live without a lot of water.

39 Riverside County Office of Education 38 Your Turn Use the passage and practice fluency instruction with a partner: – Think-alouds – Expressive Modeling – Phrase Cued Reading – Echo Reading – Cloze Reading – Choral Reading

40 Riverside County Office of Education Assessing Reading Fluency Formally and informally Timed grade-level passages Accuracy and speed Monitoring progress

41 Riverside County Office of Education Assessing Fluency Select a grade-level passage Student reads for one minute Compute the number of words read in one minute Count the number of errors Subtract the number of errors from the number of words read

42 Rate and Fluency Guidelines Silent and Oral Words Per Minute (WPM) Taylor, Harris, Pearson & Garcia, 1995 Silent Oral

43 Rate and Fluency Guidelines Silent and Oral Words Per Minute (WPM) Taylor, Harris, Pearson & Garcia, 1995 Silent Oral

44 Riverside County Office of Education How To Monitor Reading Fluency  Daily practice  Timed repeated readings  Set goals  Graph fluency progress

45 Riverside County Office of Education Identifying Appropriate Text Independent reading level: – 95% accuracy – Misread one of every 20 words Read 50–200 words Various genres Put Reading First 2001, p. 27

46 Riverside County Office of Education Organizing Repeated Reading Student fluency folders: – Graphs – Laminated text – Color coded Structures and routines: – Teach routines and expectations – Where to get materials

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49 What Do I Do for Students Who Do Not Reach Fluency Targets?  Determine whether the problem is accuracy or fluency Look for possible patterns: oMore than 1 error every 10 words indicates a need to look at accuracy oFew errors but low rate - work on fluency oRates less than 30–40 wpm typically indicate a need for word recognition instruction If students are not firm on word recognition skills, focusing on increasing speed will be counter- productive Simmons & Kame’enui 1998

50 Riverside County Office of Education 49 Objectives Content Objective: We will learn the three elements of fluency instruction Language Objective: I will describe the three elements of fluency instruction to a partner

51 Riverside County Office of Education 50 Language Function: Description One of the three elements of fluency is _____ The three elements of fluency are ______, _____, and _______. The three elements of fluency are ___________. They are important because _________. Fluency is comprised of ___________. These elements are important because ___________. We must always remember ___________.

52 Riverside County Office of Education 51 What Did I Learn? - KWLA TopicWhat I KnowWhat I Want to Know What I LearnedHow I will Apply What I Learned Fluency

53 52 Automaticity Fluency Formula Rate Phrase Prosody Inflection Academic Vocabulary Fluency Think-Aloud Repeated Reading

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